Genesis 1:1 – 2:3

Early Chapters: Creation, Fall, Judgment and Government
Genesis 1 – 11
This section takes up the creation of man, his place as head over creation, his fall, the necessity of sacrifice for sin, the judgment of the world, and the dispensational principle of government.
The Creation
Genesis 1:1 – 2:3
Divine Revelation. There are several things to get clear when reading a chapter like Genesis 1. The first is that God has revealed to us only what He would have us to know. Genesis is not a science textbook, as much as some would like it to be. Nor does it disclose everything that God has done (the world itself could not contain the books that could be written). Rather, it gives us what we need in order to walk by faith. The second thing to get clear when reading Genesis 1 is that God has spoken, and our place is to accept what He has said without projecting our own wisdom, or the theories of scientists, onto the page. The first eleven chapters of Genesis have been attacked perhaps more than any other part of the Divine record. Why? Because the principles and facts contained in these early chapters of Genesis are foundational, and once successfully undermined, the whole record is at stake.
Science vs. The Word of God. Where did we come from? Why are we here? Where are we going? These are questions that science cannot answer. They can only be answered by the Word of God. It was the wisdom of God to not burden the scripture with the details of natural science. We do not need science to uphold Genesis 1. God has spoken, and faith receives what God has said. “By faith we apprehend that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that that which is seen should not take its origin from things which appear” (Heb. 11:3). We read this statement at the very beginning of the faith-chapter; because belief in a creator-God is the foundation of the soul.

The Initial Creation of the Universe (1:1)

1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. v.1 The Divine record opens with a sublime statement about the creation of every material thing; “in the beginning God…” It is fitting that the Book of God begins with God… not man. Man stumbles in the darkness of philosophy, false-science, and vain speculation. Why? Because he rejects the Divine revelation of this verse; “God created”. “By faith we apprehend that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that that which is seen should not take its origin from things which appear” (Heb. 11:3). The heavens and the earth refer to the whole ordered system we call the universe (cosmos). The heavens would include the planets, stars, galaxies, etc. (the “first” heaven, read more…) as the psalmist could exclaim; “The heavens declare the glory of God” (Psa. 19:1). The earth refers of course to the planet earth, and all that is in it. When we see the stars, the planets, the galaxies, the seas, the global ecosystem, the movement of tectonic plates, the growth of plants and animals, the complexity of the human body, and a million other details, we are amazed by the evident power and skill of the Creator. How did God create everything? “By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth… For he spoke, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood fast” (Psa. 33:6, 9). God created by the power of His own word.
  • One Creator God. This is the first truth that must be established in the soul – there is one true God who created all things. He is self-existing, His being is un-caused, yet “all things received being through Him, and without Him not one thing received being which has received being” (John 1:3). Everything that came into existence, came into existence through Him. God creates according to His own mind; creation is a sovereign action of His own free will (Eph. 1:11). This truth was also preeminently important for the children of Israel, because it distinguished them from the nations around, that He is “the everlasting God, Jehovah, the Creator of the ends of the earth” (Isa. 40:28). It was giving up this truth and going after idols that brought down the judgment of God on Israel.
  • A Beginning.

    There are a number of beginnings in scripture, but there are three notable beginnings. The beginning in John 1:1 is the beginning of anything that had a beginning; what existed at the furthest point in the past, i.e. from eternity. The beginning in Gen. 1:1 is the beginning of the material creation. The beginning in 1 John 1:1 is the beginning of the manifestation of eternal life in this world, and it corresponds with John 1:14; "the Word became flesh" (however, in the experience of the apostles it was the beginning of the Lord's public ministry). There is also a fourth beginning, mentioned in Rev. 3:14 and Col. 1:18, referring to the beginning of the New Creation.

    This beginning is that of the ordered universe. The definite article is absent; “in beginning” is an undisclosed distance into the past. Before this beginning, there were no heavens and earth. The notion of eternal matter is false and self-contradictory. God created the universe when there was no existing material. The creation does “not take its origin from things which appear” (Heb. 11:3). We are not told when or how God did this except that it was by His Word. The important fact is that God made everything!
  • The Purpose. Why create anything? First of all, God created for His own pleasure; “for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created” (Rev. 4:11). Also, God needed objects to love. The very fact that God created is proof that He loves. But perhaps most importantly, God created the heavens and the earth as an arena for the unfolding of His purpose in Christ; “that in the dispensation of the fullness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him” (Eph. 1:10). A painter must have a canvas to paint on, and God must have a creation in which to reveal Himself.
  • Elohim. In English we only have two grammatical numbers: singular and plural. In the Hebrew and in classical Greek (not in New Testament Greek) we have separate words for the singular, dual, and plural. For example: singular “cherub”, plural, “cherubim”. In the very first verse of the Bible we find the Trinity indirectly in the very name of God. Elohim is the Hebrew word for God in plurality. Therefore Elohim could not mean one Person and could not mean two Persons. It could me three or more. Other scriptures show that it there are indeed three Persons. But the word “created” is a singular verb. In other words, we have three Persons acting as one Divine Being! So we have an elementary proof of the Trinity in the first verse of the Bible. Read more…
Creation and the Existence of God. The Bible was not written to prove the existence of God. Unbelief demands proofs, but the Bible was written for those of faith. The Bible reveals God’s mind to man, but it must be “mixed with faith” in those who hear it. However, we do have in the Bible three witnesses that make man responsible to believe God, and those are outlined in the book of Romans. The first witness is creation (Rom. 1:20), the second is conscience (Rom. 2:15), and the third is the Word of God (Rom. 3:2). Each successive witness is higher than the previous witness. For example, someone with the Word of God is more responsible than someone without that witness. Creation is the first of those three witnesses, and it is important because it is universal; “There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard” (Psa 19:3). What can creation reveal to man about God? A number of things, but chiefly God’s “eternal power and divinity, so as to render them inexcusable” (Rom. 1:20). The witness of creation is so plain that the youngest child can understand it. Why then do so many fail to believe what creation teaches? Because “the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not” (2 Cor. 4:4). Nonetheless, creation still speaks. Following are three great evidences from creation that demonstrate the existence of God:
  1. The Cosmological Evidence. Everything that comes into existence has a preceding cause. Could the universe literally have “popped” into existence out of nothing all by itself? The prevailing scientific theory for the origin of the universe is called “the big bang”, which states that the universe expanded from a high-density, high-temperature cluster of matter and energy. The theory is based on the observed expansion of the universe ongoing today. One admission of the theory is that the universe had a beginning; however, it is a false notion that order could come from an explosion. Yet science has no answers about where the original matter came from! The bottom line is this: nothing comes from nothing. There had to be a creator in order for something to be brought out of nothing. The universe – time, space, and matter – came into being at some point of origin. The supreme Cause of the universe must therefore transcend the limits of time, space, and matter, which is reflected in the attributes of God: His eternality, omnipresence, and omnipotence, respectively.1
  2. The Teleological Evidence. If we examine the universe, or even just our earth, we find tremendous teleological evidence for the existence of God; i.e. the universe appears to have been designed for a purpose. Factors like the tilt of the earth’s axis, and the percent oxygen in the composition of our atmosphere, the distance from the earth to the sun, etc. are critical to life on earth. The abundance of water alone, which is the basic substance required for life, sets this planet apart from every other celestial body observed by man. It has been calculated, that with just some of the physical constants that define our universe, the probability of them just happening to align is on the order of 10e-37! The age-old example is that of a Swiss watch. Anyone with common sense can see gears and mechanisms of a complex system like a watch and realize that there must have been an intelligent designer. The universe is infinitely more complex than a watch. Clever arguments have been raised by infidels to skirt this formidable evidence, such as the multiverse theory. However, these theories are deeply flawed, and can quickly be dispensed of with common logic.
  3. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. If we think about the observable world around us, we can draw certain conclusions about it from the perspective of energy and the conversion of energy. The second law of thermodynamics states that “the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time”, and that “the entropy of the universe tends to a maximum”.23 Entropy is the measure of disorder, or randomness of a system. Every closed system is spontaneously evolving towards thermodynamic equilibrium. This is observable to the ordinary man. Chemical reactions always tend toward equilibrium. Energy always flows from hot to cold. A rolling marble always slows down eventually. Cars break down, fires go out, and bodies decay. Now, if this is true, and the universe is a closed system, how is there still order in the universe? We must conclude that the universe was set in order by some Force outside the system at a finite point of origin (Gen. 1:1), and/or there is some outside Influence sustaining the order of the cosmos (Heb. 1:3; Col. 1:17)? If we observe a marble rolling across a flat glass surface, we have every reason to believe that something acted on that marble in the past to begin its motion. Also, if we believe the marble has been rolling for some time, we have every reason to conclude that some outside force is acting to sustain its motion. In terms of the universe, the outside Originator and Sustainer is God Himself!
But this evidence only demonstrate that God exists… the creation actually reveals far more than this: the heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament shows His handiwork!
The Gap. There is a distinction between the event of Gen. 1:1 and those of Gen. 1:3 – 2:3 (the seven days). We cannot say for certain whether v.1 and v.3 took place very close together in time, or if billions of years lay between. The gap is evident on account of: (1) the chaotic state recorded in v.2, (2) the structure of the chapter, and (3) New Testament references to these events. More details will follow, but first we must examine the chaotic state described as “waste and empty”.
“There are, accordingly, three states with the most marked distinction: original creation of the universe; the earth passed into a state of waste and emptiness; and the renovation of the earth, etc., for man its new inhabitant and ruler. Science is dumb, because wholly ignorant, how each of these three events, stupendous even the least of them, came to pass…”4
There three great states, reflected in v.1, v.2, and v.3 have been broadly compared to generation, degeneration, and regeneration.

The Chaotic State (1:2)

2 And the earth was [‘hayah’ or ‘became’] waste [‘tohu’] and empty [‘bohu’], and darkness was on the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. v.2 Next we have the condition into which the earth fell at some time after the initial creation. The verb “was” (“hayah” in Hebrew) in v.2 should more properly be translated into the English word “became”. The word “hayah” occurs seventeen times in Genesis and is translated “be”, “being”, “became”, or “began” in fourteen out of the seventeen times. The three exceptions are Gen. 1:2, 3:1, and 11:3, and in each case “became” or “came to be” would have been more consistent. This is important because it shows that v.2 is a state the earth descended into, not its original state. The verb is in the past tense, showing that the chaotic condition is earlier than the first day. We see from other scriptures that the original creation was not “waste and empty”; it says that “not as waste did he create it” (Isa. 45:18). Further, it is not in God’s nature to create in chaos, “for God is not a God of disorder but of peace” (1 Cor. 14:33). The idea of created chaos is actually a pagan motif. The words “chaos and vacant” [‘tohu’ and ‘bohu’] are mentioned together in Isa. 34:11 and Jer. 4:23. In the first reference, they describe the future state of Edom after the judgment of God because of their sin. In the second reference, they describe the state of Jerusalem after being destroyed by Babylon because of their sin. In both cases, the disorder and confusion do not describe the original condition, but rather a subsequent state that came in as a result of evil. So with the condition of the earth in v.2… fallen from its initial condition in v.1. Furthermore, we read of the absence of light; “darkness was on the face of the deep”. This understanding of v.2 (the earth in a fallen condition) is confirmed by the apostle Paul in 2 Corinthians 4:6, who correlates the state of the universe before the 1st day (v.3) to man’s sinful condition; i.e. he calls it “darkness”. It pictures the natural condition of man who is “dead in sins and offenses” (Eph. 2:1). Apart from the work of God, man is in total darkness (John 1:5). God would simply not create the universe in a state that the Holy Spirit later correlates to the results of sin. Could it be that the chaotic condition of v.2 accounts for the seismic convulsions and volcanic activity that produced the great mountain ranges of the earth? It is very possible. We have the Spirit of God mentioned first as an individual Person of the Godhead; “and the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters”. Hovering over the waters, the Spirit demonstrates the intense interest of God in what was to follow, as well as marking out the Spirit as the power by which God acts. Why do theologians relegate the Spirit to the term “the third person” in the Godhead if He is mentioned first? It was the activity of the Spirit of God to relieve the awful condition of the earth in Gen. 1:2, and it is the activity of the same Spirit to relieve the condition of man who is in moral darkness (John 3:5).
Does the Bible tell us the age of the earth? The simple answer is “no”. There is some disagreement on this question, and it is hotly debated in Christian circles. We know from chronology that the first “day” of creation (v.3) was roughly 6,000 years ago, but God has not told us the timing of v.1 or v.2. Following are a few points that support the presence of a gap between Gen. 1:1 and Gen. 1:3. Note: we do not know the duration of this “gap”… it could be days, or billions of years. Geology would suggest longer periods of time, but scripture is silent on the length of time.
  1. The Express Statements of Scripture. We have the express statement that the earth was NOT originally created in chaos (Isa. 45:18), and we also have the express statement that the chaotic condition was a subsequent state (Gen. 1:2). This settles the matter, and yet there is more evidence to support a gap between v.1 and v.3.
  2. The 1st Day Begins in Gen. 1:3. The first two verses are separate from the six days of creation. If we examine the six days we find a distinct and orderly pattern. The sixth day ends with “and there was evening, and there was morning — the sixth day” (v.31). It begins with “And God said…” (v.24). Working backwards, each day follows that pattern. The first day ends in v.5 with “And there was evening, and there was morning — the first day.” Where does the first day start? It is v.3, “And God said…” By this simple proof we see that vv.1-2 preceded the first day. Furthermore, the verb tenses change from past (God “created” and the earth “became”) in vv.1-2 to present (God “is saying” and the earth “is becoming”) in vv.3-31.
  3. The Differences between Created, Made, Formed. There is a difference in the word “created [‘bara’]” as in v.1 from the words “made [‘asa’]” and “formed [‘yasar’]”. Created has to do with bringing something into existence that had never existed before and using no existing material. Made has to do with taking previously created material and making something new and different. Formed has to do with taking something that has been made and reshaping it into a different form for a particular purpose. All three are mentioned in Isa. 43:7. On days 1, 2, 3, and 4 God was making only, on day 5 God was making and creating, and on day 6 God was making, creating and forming. “Created” is the word used in v.1. Isa. 45:18 says that after the initial creation, “He formed it to be inhabited.” This seems to refer to the reconstruction described in the six days of creation. The word “created” is used in Gen. 1:1 referring to the original creation, and the word “made” is used in Ex. 20:11 referring to the Adamic reconstruction.
  4. The Existence of Other Created Beings before Adam. Another point to consider is that we know there were other created beings in existence before the earth was created. Job 38:4-7 speaks of the time when God “laid the foundations of the earth”? At that time, it says “all the sons of God shouted for joy?” Now, whether the foundations spoken of in Job are the original creation or the Adamic re-creation, this shows that something was created before the earth as we know it. Again, the timescale is not specified.
  5. Death and Sin were before Adam. A common argument for the young earth position is that Romans 5:12 says “by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin” (Rom. 5:12, see also 1 Cor. 15:22, Rom. 8:22). How then could the condition of v.2 come about through sin, if sin had not yet come into the world? The answer to this is found in the context of Romans 5:12. The subject there is sin in the human family. Therefore, sin in the world is in the context of sin in humans, not sin in the universe. This is plainly demonstrated by the fact that Satan’s fall preceded Adam’s fall. Remember that before Adam and Eve sinned, the subtle serpent was already there. What about death? We can see from v.12 that the principle of death was already in the earth before Adam, because for plants to reproduce, the seeds must “fall into the ground and die” (John 12:24). Again, death in the context of Romans 5:12 is death in the human family. At the same time, it is clear that the Adamic earth falls under a curse when man sinned; called “the bondage of corruption” (Rom. 8:20-21).
What is a Biblical Position on the Age of the Earth? I believe a Biblical position on the age of the earth is “we do not know”. To add to that, “at least 6000 years old”. God hasn’t told us every detail of creation, and for good reason. It does seem evident that the Bible allows for a gap between v.1 and v.3. Scientists today make many claims about the age of the universe (13.8 billion years) and the age of the earth (4.5 billion years). The Biblical account allows for those eons, but doesn’t confirm them. It would be a mistake to form our beliefs solely on the word of popular science. It would be equally a mistake to not allow for any gap. A greater danger is what has become known as creation evangelism, which says that evangelists must convince the unbelievers of the young earth position in order to make the gospel “believable”. When we preach the gospel, it is to be “Christ, and Him crucified”… not intellectual arguments about creation. One of the difficulties with the young earth position is that there is no room in the seven days for the great geological formations. What about the convulsions that created the mountains, the river action that formed the canyons, the glacier movements that formed the ravines and deep lakes?
What Brought About the Chaotic Condition? We can only surmise that the fall of Satan was the cause of the chaotic condition of v.2, but then, what else could it be? We don’t know the timing of Satan’s fall, only that it was before Genesis 3. The world that Adam was placed in was put under his headship. However, when Adam sinned, he fell from that place, and the power of the air (Satan) now rules this world as its prince; “the whole world lies in the wicked one” (1 John 5:19). But God’s purpose will yet be accomplished, for “unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak. But one in a certain place testified, saying, What is man, that thou art mindful of him? etc.” (Heb. 2:5-6). It would seem, from what we know of this present world, and the world to come, and Satan’s efforts in enmity against God, that Satan’s chief goal is to usurp the inheritance of the Son of man. It is only a guess, but it would seem consistent that the original creation was committed to the hands of angels, over which Satan was the chief. It was an earthly paradise, called “Eden, the garden of God”. He was not a serpent then, but “the anointed covering cherub”, clothed with the reflected glories of God (Ezek. 28:14). But when unrighteousness was found in Satan, his heart lifted up because of his beauty, then he was ejected from the angelic company (Ezek. 28:17), and took with him his demons; “the host of the high ones” (Isa. 24:21). Under Satan’s influence, “the earth became without form and void” and remained so until God intervened. As soon as the reconstruction was complete, and Adam given the headship of creation, Satan immediately began his efforts to get the earth back under his influence. He tempted Eve with the very thought that was in his own heart; Satan’s thought was, “I will be like the Most High” (Isa. 14:14), and he tempted Eve by saying, “ye will be as God” (Gen. 3:5).
Arguments against the Gap Answered. There are a number of arguments against a gap between v.1 and v.3 of Genesis 1. One argument (and best, in my opinion) is that a plain reading of Genesis 1 without any knowledge of geology would leave one to conclude that the chaotic state was simply the condition of the earth on Day Zero. Another argument is that v.1 is a summary, and vv.2-end give us the specific details of how God did it. Both of these arguments are disproved by Isa. 45:18. Another argument is that Rom. 5:12 says sin and death entered the earth through man. This is disproved by noticing the context of Rom. 5:12, that it refers to sin and death in humans in the Adamic earth. Rom. 8:19- 22 views “all creation” as ruined through the fall of its head, but still it is the Adamic earth. Another argument is that Jesus spoke of male and female as “from the beginning of the creation God” (Mark 10:6), and therefore the earth must be very young. However, this beginning refers to the creation of man (v.27). The Lord was teaching that we need to go to the creation of man to understand God’s intentions for marriage. Finally, the primary argument against the gap is that the gap theory is somehow “a compromise with evolution”. That is simply not true, although it is granted that some old earth views are a compromise with false science. Just because the long expanses of time between v.1 and v.3 fits with the long periods required in evolutionary theory doesn’t mean that the gap is false or unbiblical.

The Seven Days: Reconstruction of the Earth for Man (1:3 – 2:3)

Typical Significance of the Seven Days. The seven days mark a complete work of God in creation. There have been many applications of the seven days of creation to God’s dispensational scheme. Below is a chart that represents the meaning of the seven days as I understand it, although I could not be dogmatic on this outline. First, please note that “sevens” in scripture are often very important symbolical outlines. When God brings in something new, He gives an outline of it symbolically at the beginning. For example; the Seven Feasts of Jehovah, the Seven Parables of the Kingdom of Heaven, and the Seven Letters to the Churches of Asia. We also know that Genesis is the seed-plot of the whole Bible, and the very first chapter contains a set of seven! It is no surprise that there is a historical outline contained therein. Notice that the first four feasts of Jehovah correspond to truths of Christianity, while the last three have to do with prophecy. The same is true of the days of Creation. In the first four, we have God bringing order out of chaos, which typifies the moral work of God in the soul of the believer. In the last three days, we have God preparing earth for man, and they typify the dispensational progression of events leading up to the reign of Christ. It is remarkable that the seven parables of Matt. 13 and the seven letters of Rev. 2-3 also have a division between the first four and the last three. Also, these days of creation can be viewed as a table of contents for the book of Genesis. The days can be mapped to the seven major “biographies” that comprise the book of Genesis.5
Gen. 1:1-2
Historical Meaning
Typical Meaning
Original Creation of Heaven and Earth
God’s Eternal Purpose to Glorify Christ in Two Spheres
Earth became Waste & Empty
Ruin & Depravity of Man
Darkness on the Deep
Absence of Spiritual Faculties
Spirit Hovering
Spirit Moves for Blessing
Days 1 – 4
Historical Meaning
Typical Meaning
1st Day
Let there be light
The New Birth, eyes opened
Given the breath of life
Division of light from dark
Faith distinguished from unbelief
2nd Day
Atmosphere (Heaven) Formed
Faith apprehends man’s condition
Cain & Abel
Two approaches to God
Waters divided
Two Natures discovered (old & new)
3rd Day
Water Gathered together
Judgment at the Cross
The means of salvation from the judgment of God
Dry Land appears
Grass, Herbs & Fruit Grow
Fruit Bearing begins
4th Day
Sun is set
Christ in glory
The heavenly calling, resting by faith on the promises
Moon is set
The Church in her relation to Him
Stars are set
Gifts given to the Church
Signs & Seasons
The Hope of the Lord’s Coming
Days 5 – 7
Historical Meaning
Typical Meaning
5th Day
The Gospel going out to the Gentiles
Christ and His Bride
The Mystery: A heavenly company
6th Day
Land Animals
Israel: God resumes His Dealings
Angels ascending, etc.
Christ as Son of Man is Manifested
7th Day
Millennial Rest
The Eternal Rest of God
Savior of the world
Were the Seven Days Literal 24-hour Periods? The word “day” can be a figurative expression for a period of time (1 Cor. 4:3), but unless there is substantial reason to suggest otherwise, it refers to a 24-hour period. The mention of “the evening” and “the morning” would confirm that. Secondly, the word used for the seven days is ‘yom’, and it is the same word used in the context of “day and night” (v.5, v.16). This would seem to indicate that the obvious interpretation is correct; that the seven days are literal days. Thirdly, the plants are made on the third day, and the animals on days five and six. If the “days” represented long ages, you would run into serious difficulties. Insect pollination is required for many kinds of plants to reproduce. The earth would rapidly be depleted of carbon dioxide without animals. For a stable ecosystems, plants and animals are needed to work together. Nor could the plants flourish without the sun set in its proper relation to the earth on the fourth day. Finally, in Exodus 20:11 we read, “For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day.” Since the Sabbath day that was to be observed by Israel was a literal 24-hour period, it would follow that the other six days were literal 24-hour days.
DATE: Approximately 4004 B.C.

The 1st Day: Light and the Division of Day and Night (1:3-5)

3 And God said, Let there be light. And there was light. v.3 Light shines out of Darkness. It doesn’t say that God created light on the first day, but that He caused light to shine out of the darkness. Naturally speaking, man views the sun as the only source of light for the earth, and would put the events of the fourth day in the first day; i.e. setting the sun and moon in their respective positions. But God, who is light, does not need the sun for light. In the heavenly Jerusalem, the city is described as having “no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof” (Rev. 21:23). Physically, how did this happen? We are not told. Perhaps God cleared away some kind of cosmic mist. But it was accomplished through His word. “For he spake, and it was done; he commanded, and it stood fast” (Psa. 33:9). Morally, this action of shining the light through the darkness to illuminate the earth corresponds to the work of God in new birth, as Paul explicitly tells us in 2 Cor. 4:6. It is the Word of God used in the power of the Spirit of God that is used to impart new life to a lost soul (John 3:5). This is what takes place when “the dead… hear the voice of the Son of God… they that hear shall live” (John 5:25).
4 And God saw the light that it was good; and God divided between the light and the darkness. 5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening, and there was morning — the first day. vv.4-5 Day and Night. God saw that the light was good… new birth is the first step in the moral work of God in the soul. The effect of light is division. A division between light and darkness, called day and night. It would appear that the earth was revolving around its axis at this point, but the light was not coming from the sun as yet (v.16). Long before scientists discovered that the rising and setting of the sun were due to the spinning of the earth. Here in Genesis is the key; there was day and night before the sun was positioned! However, the emphasis here is on the division. So it is in the soul once quickening occurs; there are moral sensibilities that exist where before it was spiritual deadness. This was the first day, and it pictures the first step in God’s work in us. In the mind of God, a day begins with evening and ends with glorious morning. Man has changed it around so that his day begins and ends with midnight.

The 2nd Day: Separation of the Waters by an Expanse (1:6-8)

6 And God said, Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and let it be a division between waters and waters. 7 And God made the expanse, and divided between the waters that are under the expanse and the waters that are above the expanse; and it was so. 8 And God called the expanse Heavens. And there was evening, and there was morning — a second day. vv.6-8 The Expanse Formed. On the second day, God made yet another division. The earth on the first day was still encased in water. Now God separated the waters into two layers: “a division between waters and waters”. The lower waters would later be divided into seas and oceans. The upper waters would become the watery atmosphere above us, the vapor from whence comes rain, hail, and snow — although no precipitation fell until the flood. The expanse is the transparent sky, called “heavens” (a secondary use, compare v.1). One noticeable thing with the second day is that it does not say “and God saw that it was good”. Why not? God’s ultimate goal in forming the Adamic earth was to make it habitable for man. In the second day, there was nothing habitable. The formation of the expanse was necessary (for respiration, light, sound, electricity), but in and of itself, the separation of waters was not enough to provide a stable habitation for man. Perhaps there is a deeper reason as well. Morally, this state of the earth with two layers of waters pictures the state of the believer after new birth. We read of this in Rom. 7, where the narrator discovers that he has two natures (two principles) inside him that are battling each other. This is not a happy state for the soul, and there is really no stability in it; “O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?” (Rom. 7:24). Stability comes with believing the gospel and being sealed with the Spirit, pictured in the third day. God does not look on the state of a quickened soul without the Spirit as a “good” condition, although it is necessary.

The 3rd Day: Formation of Land and Sea, Creation of Plant Life (1:9-13)

9 And God said, Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together to one place, and let the dry land appear. And it was so. 10 And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. vv.9-10 The Sea and Dry Land. With the third day we have a third division. On day one it was between light and dark,on day two between waters above and below, and now between sea and dry land. Before the third day, the waters below were covering the ground. Now God causes the waters below to “be gathered together to one place”. Notice the specific language: the waters were gathered together. Now, this may have been accomplished by the tectonic plates raising up, but the focus is on the water. The mention of “Seas” (plural) would show us that the continental drift most likely occurred before the seven days. It was at this time that God “gave to the sea his decree, that the waters should not pass his commandment” (Prov. 8:29). Morally, water speaks of several things in scripture. Contained water speaks of the Word of God (Eph. 5:26), running water speaks of the Spirit of God (John 7:38-39), but large bodies of water speak of the judgment of God (Gen. 6:17; Ex. 14:28). So, here the waters picture the judgment of God that was gathered together into one place, in order that provision for salvation (dry land) might be made. This of course pictures the cross, where all of God’s “waves and billows” were passed over Christ (Psa. 42:7; Psa. 88:6-7; Jonah 2:3). This interpretation is confirmed by Peter who says that “by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water”… and that the water was “kept in store” for a later time when it would be called forth by God in judgment, so that “the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished” (2 Pet. 3:5-7). In a similar way, far below the oceans lies a vast store of heat and pressure (fire), which Peter says is “reserved” likewise for the final “day of judgment”. The dry land pictures the believer’s standing “in Christ”.
11 And God said, Let the earth cause grass to spring up, herb producing seed, fruit-trees yielding fruit after their kind, the seed of which is in them, on the earth. And it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herb producing seed after its kind, and trees yielding fruit, the seed of which is in them, after their kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning — a third day. vv.11-13 Plant Life. Next we find the work that God did with respect to the dry land. He filled it with plant life! Grasses, herbs, and fruit-trees were caused to spring up in the earth. And each of these kinds of plants had the ability to “produce seed after its kind”. Morally, the introduction of plant life speaks of the believer’s portion after being placed in the full Christian position (dry land). God would have the believer’s life full of vibrancy and fruitfulness. The believer enjoys eternal life by the Spirit of God, and becomes a source of blessing to others. The progression of plant life (grass, herbs, trees) points to spiritual growth in the believer, as we read in 1 John 2 where little children, young men, and fathers are addressed.

The 4th Day: Formation of the Heavenly Bodies (1:14-19)

14 And God said, Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens, to divide between the day and the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens, to give light on the earth. And it was so. vv.14-15 The Heavenly Bodies in General. On the fourth day, God caused lights to be placed in the heavens for a twofold purpose: to give light on the earth and to measure time. The movement of the heavenly bodies are still what we use today to govern time periods; “days”, “seasons”, and “years”. It doesn’t say that God created these heavenly bodies on the fourth day, but that He positioned them such that their light would shine through the expanse at this time. When it says “in the expanse of the heavens” it refers to the effect of these heavenly bodies; i.e. the light that shines or is reflected from them toward the earth. In the mind of God, the earth is the center of the universe… physically it is not. 
16 And God made the two great lights, the great light to rule the day, and the small light to rule the night, — and the stars. 17 And God set them in the expanse of the heavens, to give light on the earth, 18 and to rule during the day and during the night, and to divide between the light and the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening, and there was morning — a fourth day. vv.16-19 The Sun, Moon, and Stars. The “two great lights” are in relation with man, who is the end of the creation. Certainly there are greater lights in the galaxy, but in relation to earth there are only two major light sources; the greater is the sun, the lesser is the moon. The making of the stars is summarized briefly. There are about 10 billion galaxies in the observable universe, and the number of stars in a galaxy varies, but the average may be around 100 billion stars per galaxy. This means that there are about 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (that is one billion trillion) stars in just the part of the universe we can see! God knows the exact number, and all their names (Psa. 147:4). And every one of those stars differs from the others in glory (1 Cor. 15:41). “By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens” (Job 26:13). Morally, the fourth day speaks of the believer coming to understand their spiritual relationships. Just as the heavenly bodies “give light” to the earth, so God has given light to His saints for their spiritual blessing. If the end of the third was growth “in grace”, then the fourth day is growth “in the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ” (2 Pet. 3:18). The sun being set speaks of Christ in glory. The moon represents the Church in her relation to Christ. The stars might represent gifts given to the church, which provide guidance. Also, the signs and seasons might bring before us the hope of the Lord’s coming.

The 5th Day: Creation of Sea Animals and Birds (1:20-23)

20 And God said, Let the waters swarm with swarms of living souls, and let fowl fly above the earth in the expanse of the heavens. 21 And God created the great sea monsters, and every living soul that moves with which the waters swarm, after their kind, and every winged fowl after its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply on the earth. 23 And there was evening, and there was morning — a fifth day. vv.20-23 On the fifth day, God fills the waters and the air with animal life. Animal life is a higher order of creation than plant life. Animals have living souls, but when their bodies die their soul dies also. Plants have bodies, but not living souls. Plants and animals naturally work together to form a stable ecosystem. Plants intake carbon and give out oxygen, while animals exhale carbon and use up oxygen. A different word is used in v.21… “God created”. The sun and the moon were made (using preexisting objects or materials), but these animals were created from nothing. The creation of “sea-monsters” here refers to the large marine animals found in the oceans and fresh waterways; crocodiles, sharks, and whales. Typically, the creation of sea animals pictures the gospel going out to the Gentiles in the present dispensation. The seas (Gentiles) did not become fruitful until after the sun (Christ) was set in its place on the fourth day. The creation of birds to fly in the heavens speaks of the heavenly calling of the Church; separate from and above the things of earth. 
Evolution. In 1859 Charles Darwin published his famous work "On the Origin of Species", the full title being "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life". In this popular work, Darwin presented his theory of the evolutionary adaptation of species by natural selection. The basic concept is that variation exists within a species, and that those animals who have traits best suited to a particular environment are more likely to survive and pass the beneficial traits to their offspring, thereby increasing the prominence of those traits within the continuing species. Among other things, Darwin observed differences in finches across the Galapagos Islands that showed adaptation of the birds' beak form and function to different environments and food sources. Darwin believed that one species could mutate into another species, given enough time and the proper environment. He proposed that many different species today descended from a common ancestor ages ago, and that the changes occurred by natural selection, rather than the providence of God. Today, many biologists believe that life on earth originated from one common ancestor. Darwin wrote, "Therefore I should infer from analogy that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed." The theory of evolution is the widely accepted position for scientists and educators in the modern world. But what does God say about it? As to variation within a species, or whether the form and function of a species can change over time, the Bible does not refute this area of evolutionary biology. It has been called "micro-evolution" by some. As to the claim that all life descended from one common ancestor, sometimes called "macro-evolution", the Bible clearly refutes it. Repeated all through Genesis 1 is the expression "after his kind", which means organisms reproduce and yield offspring of the same kind. "Kind" is a higher classification than "species" as modern science defines it. Certainly, micro-evolution within a "kind" is not only allowed for, but clearly shown in scripture! What do I mean by that? We know that all the human races came from just one man (Noah) and his wife. Clearly, this shows remarkable change in just a few thousand years. Yet in all the variations within human "kind", there is remarkable similarity, and no evidence of limbs or bodily functions that differ between those races. When man forces the breeding of differing families, reproduction is mostly impossible, and where possible, the hybrid offspring are sterile; e.g. the mule. Furthermore, the notion that more complex forms of life could descend naturally from less complex forms is utter nonsense, and runs contrary to the laws of nature. The word "evolution" has been hijacked by secularists. As Biblical Christians, we believe in evolution to a certain extent, but not the wild leaps drawn by secular philosophers of the day. The claims of Darwin and other secular evolutionists cannot be proven, and never will. Nor can these men explain how the "common ancestor" came to be. Was life created by some cosmic accident, such a spark of electricity in a cloud of gas? Was the earth seeded by a spore from another planet? These questions are preposterous. Ultimately, evolution as taught in public schools in the West is an effort to undermine faith in God. So far, the effort seems to be successful. As of 2018, only about 13% of high school biology teachers are sympathetic to creationism. God created life on earth, and He made or created the plants and animals after their kinds. "For thou didst create all things, and because of thy will they were and they were created" (Rev. 4:11).6
The Fossil Record and Dating. The fossil record provides a scattered and incomplete history of the living species on earth. Impressions of creatures, their bones, or even preserved remains in layers of sediment give us hints as to what species lived on earth in past generations. The fossil record has been a source of great controversy between geologists and scientists of various persuasions. Some argue that the fossil record lends credence to evolutionary theory, and that it contradicts the Genesis account. Fossils of creatures similar to species that we see in the world today appear to be much older than the Adamic earth (6000 years). However, the gap between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:3 contains an undisclosed period of time, in which many if not most of these fossils may have originated. There is no reason why God could not have brought back certain animals that had existed in prior ages and placed them in the Adamic creation, and it is easy to see why God should choose to leave some species extinct. The record indicates life being first created on the planet in its simplest forms, followed by a period of death, followed by another wave of higher-complexity life. This would indicate the hand of God all the way through. As to the dates that geologists assign to fossils, there is much doubt about the accuracy. There are many dating methods, but the leading approach is called carbon dating, in which the age of an object containing organic material can be estimated using the properties of a radioactive isotope of carbon (Carbon-14). When the plant or animal dies, the carbon begins to decay at a predictable rate. By measuring the amount of remaining radiocarbon, and knowing the half-life of the isotope, scientists can estimate the age of the organic matter. However, there are limitations to this method, including the fact that the amount of Carbon-14 in the atmosphere has not been steady throughout history. The bottom line with carbon dating, or with any other method, is that there is a lot of uncertainty. Man can only speculate about what God has not told him. Furthermore, what God has omitted from the Divine record is not necessary for us to know. The Word of God is sufficient to those of faith.

The 6th Day: Creation of Land Animals, Creation of Man (1:24-31)

24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth living souls after their kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth, after their kind. And it was so. 25 And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing of the ground after its kind. And God saw that it was good. vv.24-25 On the sixth day, God made land animals and man. There is a connection between the third and sixth days. Both have a double action, and both represent extremely important events: the death and resurrection of Christ, and His appearing as Son of Man. The land animals are broken down into three categories: “cattle” (or, herd-animals), “creeping things” (or, invertebrates such as worms and insects), and the “beasts of the earth” (or, wild animals). Like the plants, fish, and birds, these land animals were made “after their kind”, an expression which refutes evolution. Typically, the making of land animals speaks of God resuming His work with Israel in the form of a remnant. The sea pictures the Gentiles (Rev. 17:15), the dry land pictures Israel. 
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the heavens, and over the cattle, and over the whole earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth on the earth. 27 And God created Man in his image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. vv.26-27 The creation of man is the crowning act of God in creation, and we see the Trinity involved in it. Elohim says “Let us make man in our image” etc. – plurality. But then in v.27, we read that God made man “in His image”, etc. – singular. So we have a simple proof of the Trinity: one God in three Persons. For the plants and animals, God simply said, “Let there be…”, but when it comes to the creation of man, God enters into counsel with Himself, saying “Let us make man, etc.” This shows God’s intense delight and interest in the sons of men (Prov. 8:31). Another difference between man and animals is that there were many “kinds” of animals made, but we only read of one race of men. For man to look upon others of a different ethnicity as less-than-human is deeply wrong and unscriptural. Man is said to be both “created” (v.27) and “made” (v.26). Man was made in that his body was formed from the dust of the ground (detailed in ch.2), but created in that his spirit and soul were from God. Man was to be given “dominion” over the earth and everything in it. This was part of God’s eternal counsel… to have a creation and set man over it. David remarked on this in the eighth Psalm; “What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him?” (Psa. 8:4). The first man failed in his responsibility, but the purpose of God will be fulfilled in the Second Man, who will have dominion over all things as man in the dispensation of the fullness of times (Eph. 1:10). Eve had not been created yet, but it says “male and female”. Notice the change from “him” to “them”. This is proof that Eve was in the purposes of God from the very beginning! The same is true of the Church… she was not an afterthought (Psalm 139:16; Eph. 1:4). There is something more: man was made in the image of God, and after God’s likeness, after a Divine pattern.
The Image and Likeness of God. These two words are often confused. Adam was created in the image and likeness of God (Gen. 1:26). Image is the thought of representation, and likeness the thought of resemblance. As the likeness of God, Adam resembled God morally, in that he was without sin (see usage; Psa. 17:15; Ezek. 1:5; Dan. 10:16). Christ is never said to be the "likeness" of God, because He is God! Christ is the perfect display of all God is as light and love. To say that Christ is the likeness of God would be to deny the truth of His Person (c.p. Phil. 2:7). Though man was created "after the similitude of God", he is no longer in God’s likeness, because man is morally fallen. As the image of God, Adam was the representation of God in the earth (see usage; Dan. 2:31; Matt. 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:7). Image coveys the idea of representation: more like an icon than a photograph. Jesus could ask concerning the coin, “Whose image and superscription is this?” The Greeks understood that the image of Jupiter did not necessarily look like Jupiter, but it was made to represent him. Adam being created in the image of God means that man was placed on earth to represent God. Man, not angels, was given this place. Of course, none but Christ is the true "image" of the invisible God (Col. 1:15), and it required a man that was also Divine to be the “exact image” of God (Heb. 1:3). However, while man has fallen, he is still the image of God (1 Cor. 11:10). But fallen man gives a distorted representation. When Adam fell, God-likeness was lost and God-image was distorted; "and Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his likeness, after his image..." (Gen. 5:3). In the new creation, which is created "in Christ Jesus" (Eph. 2:10), we find that likeness is restored (Eph. 4), because the believer's new nature now resembles God in His characters of light and love. Furthermore, image is renewed (Col. 3), because God now looks down at the new race, and He is accurately represented in that race.7 In new creation, when we “put on the new man”, we fulfill God’s original purpose for mankind, as created in the image and likeness of God! When it comes to practical exhortations, in Ephesians we are told to be like God (because we are), and in Colossians we are told to represent God (because we do).
Three Conditions of Humanity. There is, however, a marked difference between Adam in the paradisaical state and the Lord Jesus Christ. Adam was innocent, but not holy; i.e. he was without the knowledge of sin, and sinless though capable of sinning. Jesus was holy, but not innocent; i.e. He had the knowledge of good and evil, but He was incapable of sin (Luke 1:35, 1 John 2:1). Humanity has existed in three conditions in this world:
  1. Innocent humanity – Adam and Eve before the fall
  2. Fallen humanity – All men since the fall, except one
  3. Sinless humanity – only the Lord Jesus Christ
Quality Definition Man in the Garden Man after the Fall The Second Man
Innocent The state of being unconscious of good and evil.
Gen. 2:25
Gen. 3:7
Isa. 7:15; Matt. 4
Sinless The state of being guiltless, of never having sinned.
Gen. 1:31
Rom. 3:23
1 Pet. 2:22
Holy The intrinsic power that rejects evil and clings to good.
Gen. 3:6
Rom 7:18
Luke 1:35, Heb. 1:9
Righteous Being morally consistent with one’s relationships. 
No moral choices.
Rom. 3:10
1 John 2:1
Spirit, Soul, and Body. Man has three parts to his being; a physical part, an emotional part, and a spiritual part. Animals have a body and soul, but no spirit. Plants have a body, but no soul. Angels are "ministering spirits" (Heb. 1:14). Only man has all three. Body gives us world-consciousness, soul gives us self-consciousness, spirit gives us God-consciousnesses. Man is set apart from all the animals, because his soul has a special self-consciousness, and his spirit a special God-consciousness. "There is a spirit in man, and the breath at the Almighty giveth them understanding" (Job 32:8). Man has three parts to his being, and they are connected, but distinct. Paul enumerates them in 1 Thess. 5:23; "I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ". The order is important. Our body can be in pain, but our soul can rise above. Our soul can be downcast, but our spirit can still rejoice in God. But when the spirit is in a bad state, everything is wrong. Man often quotes it backwards: "body, soul, and spirit". “This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly (body), sensual (soul), devilish (spiritual)” (James 3:15). In the men of this world, the cravings of the body rule the soul and spirit. But with the believer it should be the opposite; what James calls “the wisdom from above”, and it results in peace (James 3:18). Our understanding of God’s will (spirit), should inform our emotions, and then what we do with our body. When God chooses to save a person, He saves the whole person; spirit, soul, and body. This is why the doctrine of the bodily resurrection from the dead is so vital. The Christian has not only the redemption of his spirit and soul, but also the redemption of the body (Rom. 8:23).
Gender and Marriage. This verse is quoted in Mark 10:6; “male and female created he them”. When questioned about marriage, Jesus went back to the beginning. This is a great principle. Sin comes in and complicates, and twists up the practice of what God originally set forth. If we want to know how to walk in a day of declension, regardless of the subject, we are to go back to the beginning and get God’s mind about it. He made them “male and female”; i.e. God created a single pair composed of a man and a woman. That was His mind for marriage; one man and one woman. How many genders did God make? Two… male and female, which complement each other perfectly. How these things have been twisted through decades of Western philosophy!
  • Today a person’s gender is a topic for debate, and even changeable through surgery and hormonal treatments. God says “No, every person is either male or female”. 
  • Today homosexual marriage is not only accepted but celebrated. God says “No, marriage is between a man and a woman.” 
  • Today sexual relations with multiple partners is widely accepted. God says “No, sexual relations are to be between married couples only (monogamy)”.
28 And God blessed them; and God said to them, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the heavens, and over every animal that moveth on the earth. 29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb producing seed that is on the whole earth, and every tree in which is the fruit of a tree producing seed: it shall be food for you; 30 and to every animal of the earth, and to every fowl of the heavens, and to everything that creepeth on the earth, in which is a living soul, every green herb for food. And it was so. vv.28-30 We have had God speaking in creatorial power, and Him speaking in Godhead-conference, but now we have Him speaking “to them”… to the creature man, because man has a spirit. Language was not a byproduct of evolution… God gave it to man from the beginning. God gave man an instruction (v.28), and a provision (vv.29-30). The instruction was that they should multiply, spread out, subdue the earth, cultivate it, and bring the creation under their control. The provision was that the herbs and fruit would be for food, for man first, and also for birds and land animals. It would appear at this time that even the animals were herbivorous, as they will be once again in the Millennium (Isa. 11:6). After the fall, it would seem that some animals became carnivorous. After the flood (Gen. 9:3-4), animals were also given to man for food. Notice that it says “them”, referring to man and woman. It was God’s purpose that man and woman would share the universal dominion over creation. Typically, the creation of man, and his being set over creation, speaks of the time when creation will be brought under the dominion of the glorified Son of man (Eph. 1:21; fulfillment of Psa. 8). This will take place at the appearing, and continue throughout the Millennium! In that day there will be a “them” also… Christ will share His inheritance with the Church, which is His body and His bride!
31 And God saw everything that he had made, and behold it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning — the sixth day. v.31 On the 1st, 3rd, 4th, and 5th days, it says “God saw that it was good”. But it was only on the sixth day, after the creation of man, and looking back on the whole process of refurbishing the earth for man’s habitation, did God see “everything that he had made, and behold it was very good”. This demolishes the Gnostic idea that matter is evil. Notice that God does not say it was perfect… we find in ch.3 that Satan was on earth, seeking to usurp what God had made for man.

The 7th Day: God’s Rest (2:1-3)

1 And the heavens and the earth and all their host were finished. 2 And God had finished on the seventh day his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it, because that on it he rested from all his work which God had created in making it. vv.1-3 On the seventh day, the reconstruction of the heavens and earth for man was complete, and God rested. Later on, under the law, the children of Israel would be commanded to observe the Sabbath day as a holy day, and honor it by doing no work on that day. Note that Christians are not connected with the seventh day of the week, but with the first. The first day of the week speaks of a new beginning, of resurrection. But we find in John 5:17 that God’s rest was short-lived… His rest was broken by man’s sin (Rom. 5:12). Jesus could say, “My Father worketh hitherto, and I work”. That rest will not be fully restored until the new heavens and earth (Rev. 21:1-8); however, Christ risen from the dead is the head of the new creation (Rev. 3:14), and so God can find all His rest and satisfaction in the person and work of His Beloved Son! Read more… Typically, the seventh day speaks of the Millennium, which is the “rest” that “remaineth to the people of God” (Heb. 4:9). After six-thousand years of sin, strife, and sickness, the Lord “shall come down like rain upon the mown grass: as showers that water the earth” (Psa. 72:6), and “the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God” (Rom. 8:21). Yet there is no mention of “evening and morning” on the seventh day. Why? Perhaps because the Millennial rest will continue right on into the eternal state, where time shall be no longer!
  1. As for the expansion of the universe, this fact only confirms that the universe had a beginning. Some have wondered if such expansion is comprehended in the statement that God “stretcheth out the heavens” (repeated ten times in scripture), although those words could very well be poetic.
  2. “I believe the tendency in the material world is for motion to become diffused, and that as a whole the reverse of concentration is gradually going on – I believe that no physical action can ever restore the heat emitted from the Sun, and that this source is not inexhaustible; also that the motions of the Earth and other planets are losing vis viva which is converted into heat…” – Lord Kelvin
  3. “The entropy of the universe tends to a maximum.” – Rudolf Clausius
  4. Kelly, William. In the Beginning. New Edition, Revised 1894.
  5. Parts of this chart are borrowed from a similar chart by Eric James.
  6. "Evolution is but scientific mythology in contempt of scripture..." - Kelly, William. In the Beginning. New Edition, Revised 1894.
  7. It has been well remarked that in Ephesians Christ is never spoken of as the image of God; He is so, very expressly, in Colossians. If we may discriminate, what we have in Ephesians is more Christ showing me what God is — not His image, but His moral likeness reflected in Christ. Hence it is said, "Be ye imitators of God, as dear children, and walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us." It is more the notion of resemblance than representation. Still, although you can say of Christ, He is the image of God, He is never said to be in the likeness of God, just because He is God. In Colossians we hear repeatedly of the image of God. Here, for instance, the new man is said to be "after the image of him that created him"; as in the first chapter Christ is said to be the image of the invisible God. The two ideas of likeness and image may often be confounded in our minds, but not so in Scripture, where likeness simply means that one person resembles another; image means that a person is represented, whether it be like him or not — both of course may be together. - Kelly, William. The Epistle to the Colossians.