- Introduction: The Occasion of the Prayer (9:1-2)
- Daniel’s Confession of the Sin of God’s People (9:3-6)
- Daniel’s Justification of God in His Governmental Dealings (9:7-15)
- Daniel’s Supplication to God for Mercy (9:16-19)
- The Answer to Prayer: Revelation of the Seventy Weeks (9:20-27)
Introduction: The Occasion of the Prayer (9:1-2)
Daniel’s Confession of the Sin of God’s People (9:3-6)
- We turned aside from the commandments of the Word of God,
- We refused to listen to the prophets that God sent to recall his people to repentance.
Daniel’s Justification of God in His Governmental Dealings (9:7-15)
Daniel’s Supplication to God for Mercy (9:16-19)
- The subject. Notice that he asks God to do what he was already going to do! He prays that God would grant a recovery. This is a tremendous key to understanding prayer. Prayer is the way God would align our thoughts and feelings with His mind and heart (see Rom. 8:27). God was going to do this, but He waited until Daniel prayed for it!
- The attitude. Notice also how unselfish these requests are. Daniel does not say “my people”, “our city”, “our sanctuary”, but rather “thy city Jerusalem, thy holy mountain… thy sanctuary”. Even though God had pronounced “Lo-ammi” (Hos. 1:9) over Israel, Daniel knows the heart of God is still toward His people, and refers to them as God’s people. In the response, God still maintains His governmental position, and uses “thy people, and thy holy city”. Yet Daniel’s faith must have brought joy to the heart of God.
- The motivation. What was the motivation? To make things easier for the Jews? To scratch some nationalistic “itch”? No… but instead “for thine own sake”. How about our prayers? Do we immediately mention our own needs? Daniel spend 13 verses confessing, before he made any request. Then his request was not for himself, but for the Lord’s own glory.
- The basis. He does approach go with any sense of self-merit. He says, “we do not present our supplications before thee because of our righteousnesses“. He knew that Israel had forfeited all claims to the Mosaic promises on the basis of works. Rather, he falls back on the sovereign grace and mercy of God; “but because of thy manifold mercies“.
- The goal. Daniel understood that Israel’s ultimate blessing was tied to the glory of Jehovah; “thy city and thy people are called by thy name.”
The Answer to Prayer: Revelation of the Seventy Weeks (9:20-27)
- First, ISAIAH was given the name of the monarch who would commission the rebuilding of the temple; “That saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure: even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the temple, Thy foundation shall be laid” (Isa 44:28).
- Secondly, JEREMIAH (586 B.C.) was given the amount of time before the return would occur; “For thus saith the LORD, That after seventy years be accomplished at Babylon I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place” (Jer. 29:10).
But then God waits… until this man – greatly beloved – gets on his knees and prays that it would happen.
- Thirdly, DANIEL (541 B.C.) prayed that God would deliver his people; “Lord, hear! Lord, forgive! Lord, hearken and do! defer not, for thine own sake, O my God! for thy city and thy people are called by thy name” (Dan. 9:19). Daniel is the catalyst that God delighted to use in this progression of grace!
Daniel’s Seventy Weeks (vv.24-27)
The Purpose of the Seventy Weeks (v.24)
Daniel had discovered from the Word of God that a remnant would return after seventy years of captivity to the land of Israel (Jer. 25:11-12, 2 Chron. 36:21, Lev. 25), and that the 70 years was almost up (v.2). Daniel knew that Babylon was about to be destroyed. Then Daniel began to pray; confessing his sin, the sin of his people Israel, and beseeching the Lord to forgive Israel, and to restore Jerusalem. Then God lets Daniel into His mind, and says, hold on a minute, the full and final deliverance of the Jews would not be until seventy weeks had run their course. In other words, God's governmental working with Israel is on a much longer timeline than Daniel ever expected. The word "week" in this verse is the Hebrew "shbo", better translated "heptad"; it refers to any group of seven. As in Genesis 29:27, so in this case also, it is a group of seven years. Seventy weeks is 70 x 7 = 490 years. We learn from this, that the Jews' deliverance from Babylon long ago is but a foreshadow of the coming deliverance of the godly Jewish remnant from future political Babylon (the Beast) in the Tribulation period.
God now gives to Daniel the sixfold purpose for the seventy weeks:
- "to close the transgression"…………………...........To bring Israel’s iniquity to it’s full height.
- "to make an end of sins"………………………………To put a stop to Israel’s rebellion.
- "to make expiation for iniquity"…………………….To grant governmental forgiveness to Israel.
- "to bring in the righteousness of the ages"……...To introduce a millennial reign of righteousness.
- "to seal up vision and prophecy"..………………….To bring all prophetic subjects to a close.
- "to anoint the holy of holies"..………………………..To usher in Millennial worship.
The Division of the Seventy Weeks (v.25)
God now gives the principal divisions of the seventy weeks. The weeks begins with the commandment to rebuild Jerusalem. There were two decrees given, and careful study will show which decree is referenced here. In the Book of Ezra, we have a commandment from the king Artaxerxes (called Longimanus), "in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the king" (Ezra 7). Then later, in "the twentieth year" of his reign, another commandment was given to Nehemiah (Neh. 2:1) specifically to rebuild the city. This is a particular decree of Artaxerxes, given in 455 B.C. (see Nehemiah 2:1) which marks the beginning of Daniel's seventy weeks. From that time there would be "seven weeks" (49 years) until the completion of the wall by Nehemiah in 406 B.C.. Then there would be "sixty-two weeks" (434 years) until the time when Messiah would enter the city as "the Prince"; i.e. the triumphal entry (29 A.D.). Only one more week remains!
Calculating the Triumphal Entry. It is incredible how accurately we can calculate the exact year of Christ's triumphal entry!
The Interval Between the 69th and 70th Weeks (v.26)
We are now told a number of things that would occur after the 69th week, but before the 70th week. “Messiah cut off” refers to the cross, when Christ was cut off in death, crucified. “And shall have nothing” refers to the way in which He was denied His rights as the Messiah of Israel. The next thing is that the "people of the prince" (the Romans) would “destroy the city and the sanctuary", which was fulfilled when the Roman armies under Titus destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 A.D. Important note: The “prince that shall come” is the first leader of the revived Roman empire, but “his people” come before he actually does. Finally, "the end thereof shall be, etc.” showing that the whole period of Israel’s setting aside would be characterized by one war after another.
The Seventieth Week of Daniel (v.27)
Now we come to perhaps the most important verse in all of prophecy. The 70th week is divided in halves, with critical events happening at the termini of each half. First, at the beginning of the week, the prince (the leader of the Roman empire) will extend a covenant of protection to “the many” (Israel). This covenant is a treaty between the prince's people (Rome) and “the many”, which refers to the Jews. This covenant will undoubtedly be a covenant of protection, referred to in Isaiah 28:15 as “a covenant with death, and with hell”. The apostate nation of Israel will happily enter this covenant to protect them from “the overflowing scourge” (the King of the North) which they know “shall pass through”. Then, "in the midst of the week", a radical change will occur. The leader of the Roman empire (a different man) will put a stop to Jewish worship. This new leader is the Personal Beast, the "little horn" of Daniel 7. The Personal Beast will come to power in the middle of Daniel’s 70th week, and he will reign for the last 3 1/2 years. What happened to the "prince" who made the covenant? The tenure of that “coming prince” is very short… only 3 1/2 years. We read of this leader, called the “seventh king” (Rev. 17:10); “and when he comes he must remain only a little while”. Evidently, a great upheaval at the middle of the week will result in him being either killed or deposed so that the Personal Beast can take his office. The Personal Beast needs to abolish Judaism (and Christianity) in order to set up his own religion. To do so he will breach the terms of the covenant set up by the earlier prince; "he hath broken his covenant" (Psa. 55:20). This will be a warning to Israel to abandon human protection and turn to the Lord… but they will not heed the warning. As a result of them trusting in the covenant ("the protection of abominations") God will send the instrument of His judgment on Israel toward the end of the week, called "a desolator" (the King of the North). He will wreak havoc on the land and the Jews during the period called here "the consumption". The judgment has been pre-measured and "determined" by God to fall on the Jews, here called "the desolate".
- 1260 days – Deliverance from Antichrist and Jewish persecution
- 1290 days – Deliverance from the King of the North
- 1335 days – Deliverance from the Russian confederacy