Exodus 12

 
The Passover and the Exodus
Exodus 12
 
Two Deliverances. There are two deliverances in the book of Exodus, and they really illustrate two sides of one work of redemption. The deliverance of the Passover (Exodus 12) pictures the deliverance of the soul from the penalty or guilt of our sins, which is covered doctrinally in Romans 3, 4, and 5. The deliverance of the Red Sea (Exodus 14) pictures the deliverance of the soul from the power of sin, which is doctrinally covered in Romans 6, 7, and 8. Both represent one work, but in two different aspects. With the Passover it represents that which Christ accomplished for the eye of a holy God; “when I see the blood I will pass over you” (Ex. 12:13). But with the Red Sea it represents the bringing of the soul in to the realization that sin has no more dominion over us; “Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the LORD, which he will shew to you to day… and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore” (Ex. 14:13, 30). First, we have redemption by blood, then we have redemption by power. But we must see that two literal events typify different aspects of one great work, which Christ accomplished on the cross. We see that both deliverances are needed before Israel can sing the song of redemption. So it is in the experience of the believer. We must know our sins put away before God, and also know ourselves set free from sin, before we can worship unhinderedly.
 
The Passover. In the tenth plague, we find that Israel and the Egyptians were on equal footing; “all have sinned” (Rom. 3:23). The shelter of the blood was available to all, but was only appropriated by those who believed the Word of the Lord (Rom. 3:23). Death would either fall on the firstborn or on the lamb as a substitute for the firstborn. There is no doubt that the Passover is a type of Christ; “For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us” (1 Corinthians 5:7). The Passover speaks of the death of Christ in the aspect of screening us from the judgment of God which hung over us because of our sins. Christ is “the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world” (John 1:29). The though of a lamb puts the emphasis on the blood; “the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you” (1 Peter 1:19-20).
 
Feeding on Christ as the Passover. We find there were three foods that Israel had on their journey from Egypt to Canaan; the Passover lamb in Egypt, the manna in the wilderness, and the old corn of the land of Canaan. These three foods represent the spiritual food that God has given us as Christians; three “entrees” of the Christian’s menu! All three speak of Christ! In Exodus 12 we have many details of the Passover given, and it provides a rich subject for our meditation and enjoyment! Read more…
 
 

The Passover (12:1-28)

Instructions for the Passover (vv.1-13)

CHAPTER 12
And Jehovah spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you. vv.1-2 The Beginning of Months. It was to be the beginning of months for Israel, meaning God was fixing the current time (Nissan, close to our April) as the beginning of Israel’s calendar thenceforward. Typically this shows that the Passover is the first step in the experience of a believer; i.e. a new beginning… that never ends! It marks the beginning of “the rest of the time in the flesh” until we leave this earth. Everything in our Christian lives traces back to this cardinal truth, and our experience to the moment we came into the good of it; the shed blood of Christ.
 
3 Speak unto all the assembly of Israel, saying, On the tenth of this month let them take themselves each a lamb, for a father’s house, a lamb for a house. 4 And if the household be too small for a lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; each according to the measure of his eating shall ye count for the lamb. vv.3-4 The Lamb Required. Here was a message that God wanted to be heard by the whole assembly of Israel. This represents the good news of the gospel. Christ is the Lamb of God’s providing, but it must be appropriated by the believer. In Genesis 22 it was “God will provide [for] himself a lamb.” But here God shares His lamb with us; and so it is “they shall take to them every man a lamb”. It has to be individual. But also it says “a lamb for an house” so we see that God delights to save households. The lamb could never be too little for a house, and it could often be too much. Such is the sufficiency of Christ to meet the needs of our souls. Neighbors could join together for one lamb, but it could not be carried out of doors (v.46). It was to be treated with dignity and respect.
 
5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a yearling male; ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats. v.5 Qualification of the Lamb. The lamb was to be “without blemish” which speaks of the sinless perfection of Christ. He “did no sin”, He “knew no sin”, and “in Him is no sin” (1 Pet. 2:22, 2 Cor. 5:21, 1 John 3:5). God required a perfect sacrifice; “the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot” (1 Peter 1:19-20). No sinful man could do, Christ was the only qualifying sacrifice. It was to be a male of the first year, which speaks of the youth and vigor of the sacrifice. No old and careworn animal would satisfy. Christ was offered at the age of thirty-three and one half years. It was to be “from the sheep, or from the goats”, i.e. it wasn’t to be a stalled lamb. It had to be one that was actively out with the rest. The Lord Jesus did not live a sheltered life, He moved among his brethren.
 
6 And ye shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month; and the whole congregation of the assembly of Israel shall kill it between the two evenings. v.6 Four Days. The four days that the lamb was to be kept up for is symbolic of the 3 1/2 years of the Lord’s public ministry. The Lord’s entire public ministry (3 ½ years) was an opportunity to examine the Lamb to see if any blemish could be found in Him. It was evident to God “this is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased” and to man “never man spake like this man” that the lamb was without blemish and without spot. Also, we have four gospels that tell of His spotless character. The whole assembly was to kill it (singular) at the same time. In God’s mind there was only one Lamb in view. This reminds us of Hebrews 10:10 “the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.” In another sense, the lamb was selected long before the tenth day. Peter says “Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you.”
 
7 And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two door-posts and on the lintel of the houses in which they eat it. v.7 The Blood. The blood had to be applied. This speaks of the simple faith that saves. It was not complicated, but it did require faith. The blood is what has value before God. There is only one currency in heaven; “the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.” It was applied with “a bunch of hyssop” (v.22). Hyssop denotes humility or lowliness. We see this perfectly in the Lord Jesus as He went to the cross. Furthermore, we need to humble ourselves to apply the blood. This is the “obedience of faith” (Rom. 1:5; 16:26). The blood was applied on either side and above, but not below. The the judgment was “from above”, which is why it is called the “pass over”; i.e. it was the judgment of God (John 8:23). The blood doesn’t protect us from natural evils that come from the earth, such as sickness, etc. as some false teachers insinuate.
 
8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; with bitter herbs shall they eat it. 9 Ye shall eat none of it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roast with fire; its head with its legs and with its in-wards. 10 And ye shall let none of it remain until the morning; and what remaineth of it until the morning ye shall burn with fire. vv.8-10 Eating the Lamb. They were to eat the lamb roast with fire. The roasting speaks of the judgment of God against sin which fell upon the Lord Jesus Christ in the three hours of darkness. We are to eat the Passover to appropriate Christ to ourselves as the one whose death has brought us life. The unleavened bread was the holy separate walk of the Lord on earth. Also, the Passover began the seven-day Feast of Unleavened Bread. This feast speaks of the holy, separate walk of the believer. It was not to be “raw” or “underdone.” The fire (God’s wrath) must do its work thoroughly for our redemption. The lamb exposed to the full action of the fire represents the Lord “made sin for us”. “Not sodden at all with water,” should be, “not done in water,” or boiled. Boiling was unacceptable because water would hinder the direct action of the fire, spoiling the type.
  • The head: Christ’s thoughts
  • The legs: Christ’s walk (read the four Gospels)
  • The inwards: Christ’s affections and motives (read the Poetic books)
Note the order: they were to (1) kill the lamb, (2) shed its blood, then (3) roast it. This order would save it from the sufferings of the fire. But our Heavenly Lamb was roasted, slain, then His blood shed. The roasting came first with our Lord, rather than last. The reason is that in order for the blood of Christ had to have full efficacy, it had to follow after the atoning sufferings (roasting). Thus his blood was shed by a Roman spear, carrying with it the full power of the atoning sufferings.
  
11 And thus shall ye eat it: your loins shall be girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste; it is Jehovah’s passover. v.11 How to Eat It. They were to eat it quickly – “in haste” – ready to go at a moment’s notice. They needed to put on their pilgrim character. We too need to do this; because the cross has made us strangers in a strange land. On the other hand, the fact that they were eating it in haste showed that these ones were not truly enjoying peace. The power of Satan (Pharaoh) had not been broken in their experience. They still had much running to do before they could sing the Song of Deliverance. “Loins” represent our affections, which are to be set on things above, rather than on the things of this earth (Col. 3:2). “Shoes” separate from things of the world. It is only by the sovereign action of God that our separation from the world will be maintained all along our wilderness path (Deut. 29:5).
 
12 And I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am Jehovah. 13 And the blood shall be for you as a sign on the houses in which ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be among you for destruction, when I smite the land of Egypt. vv.12-13 The Destroying Angel. The destroying angel would pass over the whole land in much the same way that the judgment of God will come upon the whole world. The blood alone is sufficient to shelter the chosen people. It is important to remember that judgment is coming on this world. We don’t see it yet, and if we do not walk by faith it causes us to grow lax in our separation.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread (vv.14-20)

14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall celebrate it as a feast to Jehovah; throughout your generations as an ordinance for ever shall ye celebrate it. 15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread: on the very first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day — that soul shall be cut off from Israel. 16 And on the first day ye shall have a holy convocation, and on the seventh day a holy convocation: no manner of work shall be done on them, save what is eaten by every person — that only shall be done by you. 17 And ye shall keep the feast of unleavened bread; for in this same day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt; and ye shall keep this day in your generations as an ordinance for ever. 18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, in the evening, ye shall eat unleavened bread until the one and twentieth day of the month in the evening. 19 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for whoever eateth what is leavened — that soul shall be cut off from the assembly of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or born in the land. 20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened: in all your dwellings shall ye eat unleavened bread. vv.14-20 The Feast of Unleavened Bread. The Feast of Unleavened Bread was a seven-day feast that began on the Passover and continued until the following Sabbath. It naturally follows the Passover in its typical teaching. In 1 Cor. 5:7-8 we are called on to fulfill the type of the feast of unleavened bread, just as Christ fulfilled the type of the Passover feast; “For also our passover, Christ, has been sacrificed; so that let us celebrate the feast, not with old leaven, nor with leaven of malice and wickedness, but with unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.” When we think of the cost to the Lord Jesus to put away our sins as the true Passover Lamb, we find motivation to live a sanctified life for Him. The feast of unleavened bread is the whole life of a believer, from start to finish; this is the significance of “seven days”. It isn’t that we are to judge evil only on Sunday morning; it must be judged daily. The seven days speak of spiritual completeness. There is no time in our life where we can allow the world and the flesh to be active. Leaven in scripture always speaks of evil, and so the fact that this bread was unleavened would suggest the thought of holiness. It requires a holy walk that is unpretended and honest before the Lord. The practical result of walking in the Spirit is a separate, holy life. God desires total separation! The soul that ate leavened bread was still sheltered by the blood, but his communion was cut off. So with the Christian; an unholy thought can break our communion with God.

A Memorial Forever (vv.21-28)

21 And Moses called all the elders of Israel, and said to them, Seize and take yourselves lambs for your families, and kill the passover. 22 And take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and smear the lintel and the two door-posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning. 23 And Jehovah will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he sees the blood on the lintel, and on the two door-posts, Jehovah will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come into your houses to smite you24 And ye shall observe this as an ordinance for thee and for thy sons for ever. 25 And it shall come to pass, when ye are come into the land that Jehovah will give you, as he has promised, that ye shall keep this service. 26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say to you, What mean ye by this service? 27 that ye shall say, It is a sacrifice of passover to Jehovah, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when he smote the Egyptians and delivered our houses. And the people bowed their heads and worshipped. 28 And the children of Israel went away, and did as Jehovah had commanded Moses and Aaron; so did they. vv.21-28 A Memorial Forever. After repeating the instructions in vv.21-23, Moses tells the children of Israel to keep the ordinance of the Passover forever, when they came to the land of promise. Their children would ask the meaning of the ordinance, and the parents were to give an intelligent answer; “It is a sacrifice of passover to Jehovah, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when he smote the Egyptians and delivered our houses.” Christian parents likewise need to be able to give an intelligent answer to their children when they ask why we do the things we do. The great result of these final instructions for the Passover was first homage “the people bowed their heads and worshipped” and then obedience “the children of Israel went away, and did as Jehovah had commanded”. But they were not yet able to sing! That would wait for the second part of Israel’s deliverance at the Red Sea.
 

The Exodus From Egypt (12:29-51)

The Last Night in Egypt (vv.29-36)

29 And it came to pass that at midnight Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of cattle. v.29 The Death of the Firstborn. Just as the Lord had promised, the judgment finally fell. All the firstborn in the land of Egypt were killed.
 
30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his bondmen, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house in which there was not one dead. 31 And he called Moses and Aaron in the night, and said, Rise up, go away from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve Jehovah, as ye have said. 32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and go; and bless me also. vv.30-32 Pharaoh Sends Israel Away. The horrible cry of anguish arose in the night at the discovery of the slain firstborn. What a horrible noise that would have been! The cry came up from all over, because “there was not a house in which there was not one dead”. Pharaoh called to Moses and Aaron in the night, but we have no reason to believe there was a face to face meeting. Just as the Lord had told Moses in ch.11 v.1, Pharaoh did send Israel away. This time there were no conditions; “both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve Jehovah, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds…”. In the last expression we see on one hand Pharaoh’s fear, and on the other danger; he said “and bless me also”. Satan’s last compromise is that we would simply give him a little place in our hearts. Sadly, this is what happened for Israel. They went out of Egypt ready to be rid of the bondage of Egypt, but they retained in their hearts a desire for the pleasures of Egypt, and this later became their downfall.
 
33 And the Egyptians urged the people, to send them out of the land in haste; for they said, We are all dead men34 And the people took their dough before it was leavened; their kneading-troughs bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. 35 And the children of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, and they had asked of the Egyptians utensils of silver, and utensils of gold, and clothing. 36 And Jehovah had given the people favour in the eyes of the Egyptians, and they gave to them; and they spoiled the Egyptians. vv.33-36 The Egyptians Send Israel Away. The Egyptians also were desperate to be rid of the Hebrews. Amid their anguish for the loss of their firstborns, they were filled with a fear for their own lives also; “We are all dead men!” Could there be a more fitting statement to describe the men of this world? When it was time to leave, there was no time to prepare. Thankfully, Israel had “done according to the word of Moses” and had asked their neighbors for gold, silver, etc. In this way, Israel “spoiled the Egyptians”.

Departure from Egypt (vv.37-42)

37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, besides children. 38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks and herds — very much cattle. 39 And they baked the dough that they brought forth out of Egypt into unleavened cakes, for it was not leavened; for they were driven out of Egypt, and could not wait; neither had they prepared for themselves any food. 40 And the residence of the children of Israel that they resided in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years. 41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, on that same day it came to pass that all the hosts of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt. 42 It is a night of observance to Jehovah, because of their being brought out from the land of Egypt: that same night is an observance to Jehovah for all the children of Israel in their generations. vv.37-42 Departure from Egypt. Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, which was a place to the east of Ramses, but still in the precincts of Egypt. This the first leg of Israel’s wilderness journey. The very night they were sheltered by the blood of the lamb, their wilderness experience began. So with us. The cross makes us strangers in this world. The number of the children of Israel is given as “six hundred thousand on foot that were men, besides children.” This implies a total population of over two million! This is especially remarkable considering that Israel came to Egypt with on 70 persons (Gen. 46:27). This requires roughly a 5% growth rate over 215 years! There are a few factors to consider. First, God caused Israel to multiply extremely quickly (Ex. 1:20). Second, it was a common practice for Hebrew men to marry multiple wives, and for each wife to have multiple children. There were two censuses taken in Numbers. The abled bodies men were numbered at 603,550 in Numbers 1:46, and 601,730 in Numbers 26:51 after the older generation had died and a new generation grown up. It also says “a mixed multitude went up also with them”, meaning Egyptians that left with Israel, and probably had intermingled with them by marriage. This same mixed-multitude later became the source of problems for Israel (Num. 11:4). Also with Israel came great flocks and herds. The reason is given why their bread was not leavened; because they could not wait. Later (ch.13) we find that when the feast was kept, they were to have no leaven in their houses on purpose. Finally, after 430 years, Israel was free from Egypt! This was such a momentous occasion that it became a “night of observance to Jehovah” for generations. 
 
How long was Israel in Egypt? Galatians 3:17 says that there were 430 years between the promise and the giving of the law. If Abram was 75 years old when the promise was given, and 100 when Isaac was born, and if Isaac was 60 when Jacob was born, and if Jacob was 130 when he stood before Pharaoh, then the years from the promise to Israel’s time in Egypt were 25 + 60 + 130 = 215 years. Therefore the years of Israel’s sojourn in Egypt proper were 430 – 215 = 215 years. This agrees with Genesis 15:16, which says “in the fourth generation they shall come up hither”.  In Ex. 6:16-20 we find the four generations: Jacob’s son Levi, his son Kohath, his son Amram, and his son Moses. If Moses was eighty years old at the Exodus, and he was born when his mother was forty-seven years of age, then we are left with 215 – 80 – 47 = 88 years for Levi to have Kohath, and Kohath to have Jochebed, which is quite reasonable. But then in Ex. 12:40 we read, “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.” The 430 years must include the total time of the sojourning of Abram until the Exodus from Egypt.1 What then does the 400 years of Genesis 15:13 refer to? It refers to the full time in which Abram’s seed was afflicted by the Egyptians. The 400 years began thirty years after the promise, which lines up with the time when Isaac was five years old, and was persecuted by Ishmael, the son of Hagar the Egyptian! If a discrepancy seems to appear, it is our minds that are at fault, not the Word of God.
 

The Ordinance of the Passover (vv.43-50)

43 And Jehovah said to Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover: No stranger shall eat of it; 44 but every man’s bondman that is bought for money — let him be circumcised: then shall he eat it. 45 A settler and a hired servant shall not eat it. vv.43-45 Who Should Keep It. It is interesting that in the instructions for the ordinance of the Passover there is much said about eating the lamb, but nothing said about applying the blood. This is because the blood of Christ is applied once-for-all to the soul, and never needs to be repeated. Feeding on Christ as the Lamb of God however is something we ought continually to do! There are a number of different classes here. First, a “stranger” would be a Gentile, not of the children of Israel. These represent unbelievers, who have no part with Christ, and no ability to feed on Him. Second, a “bondman that is bought for money” would be one that was the property of an Israelite. These represent those who have come among the people of God without their own choice, yet they are redeemed. Such were permitted to eat the Passover, so long as they were circumcised. Circumcisions speaks of putting the flesh in the place of death. In other words, it didn’t matter how you got there, any redeemed soul can feed on Christ if they have acknowledged what the cross means to nature, to the flesh, and to the world. Third, the “settler” or tenant-farmer and the “hired-servant” were not allowed to eat the Passover. They represent those those who approach God on a legal basis; giving something to get something. No soul in this state can feed on Christ. There is a fourth category as well, in v.48, “a sojourner sojourneth with thee”. This represents the Gentiles generally, who dwell in the tents of Shem, brought into blessing by faith, and therefore able to feed on Christ.
 
46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth any of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof. v.46 Carefulness. There was to be a carefulness with the Passover. Even though neighbors could share the lamb in a case where one house was too small, it was important that the lamb not be carried outside into the streets as a common thing; “thou shalt not carry forth any of the flesh abroad out of the house”. This also shows that God intended to fulfill His promise, and bring them to Canaan. In the wilderness they would dwell in tents, but in Canaan they would have permanent dwellings. Another thing was that they should handle the lamb carefully; “neither shall ye break a bone thereof”. This last part is prophetic of Christ, as John 19 shows us.

Not a bone of the Passover lamb was to be broken, and so with the Messiah when He died. This scripture is quoted in John 19:33-36 in connection with the Lord being dead before the soldiers reached Him with their clubs. This shows the Passover was completely filled by Christ. Scripture doesn't say exactly why it was important that a bone of the Messiah would not be broken. God willed it that the legs of His Son would not be broken; His body was precious. Here are several possible reasons. (1) To break a bone of the Lamb would introduce the thought of “crushing” or forcibly ending life. It was imperative that Christ lay down His own life in obedience to His Father’s will (John 10:18). No man took it from Him. And yet, while no man took His life from Him, God holds man responsible for their intentions... murder. Accordingly, in the book of Revelation, Jesus appears as "a lamb as it had been slain" (Rev. 5:6). The symbol of a "slain lamb" has the idea of an innocent victim subjected to a violent death. It says in Zech. 12:10 that Israel "shall look upon me whom they have pierced". God holds them responsible. (2) Bones are the frame of a person, and the Person of our Lord was not broken by the sufferings of the cross. His sufferings did not make Him less than He was. (3) We are not saved by his walk (leg bones) by by his blood (pierced side).

 
47 All the assembly of Israel shall hold it. 48 And when a sojourner sojourneth with thee, and would hold the passover to Jehovah, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and hold it; and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof. 49 One law shall be for him that is home-born and for the sojourner that sojourneth among you. vv.47-49 The Requirement of Circumcision. The Passover was unique to Jehovah’s covenant people, the children of Israel. All the assembly of Israel was to hold the ceremony, without exception. When a sojourner was dwelling in the land long-term and wanted to honor the God of that land, they were permitted to hold the Passover as long as all the males were circumcised. The sign of God’s covenant with Abraham must be taken by any who would partake of the Passover, without exception; “he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof”. This was a permanent step, which could not be reversed, and therefore not to be entered into lightly. As literal circumcision was physically the “cutting off” of the flesh, so it morally represents the believer passing judgment on the flesh. In Colossians circumcision is applied to the believer in this way. In Col. 2:11 it is viewed as something that a believer does when they believe the gospel. Before we partake of the precious things of Christ, there should first be that solemn step of agreeing with God about the flesh, and all that man is by nature.
 
50 And all the children of Israel did as Jehovah had commanded Moses and Aaron; so did they. v.50 Obedience. As in v.28, the children of Israel obey. Obedience is the key to blessing!

Conclusion (v.51) 

51 And it came to pass on that same day, that Jehovah brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt according to their hosts. v.51 Conclusion. The great result of the Passover, the tenth plague of Egypt, was that Jehovah delivered Israel from the land of Egypt. Mention is made of their “hosts”, which indicates the Lord’s purpose to use Israel to accomplish a work later on.
 
 
  1. It is interesting that the Septuagint and the Samaritan Pentateuch read that they were in “Egypt and Canaan” for 430 years. It could be that the words “and Canaan” were omitted from the Masoretic text on accident. However, the same words could have been added in the other documents to try to account for an “apparent discrepancy”. We cannot know for sure.