- Teaching on the Good Shepherd (10:1-18)
- A Division Occurs Among the Jews (10:19-21)
- The Lord in Solomon’s Porch: Encounter with Unbelievers, Not His Sheep (10:22-38)
- The Lord Beyond Jordan: Encounter with Many Believers, His Sheep (10:39-42)
Teaching on the Good Shepherd (10:1-18)
- He came in by the door (vv.1-6). He is qualified to be the true Shepherd because He came into the fold by the door, meeting all the qualifications for the Messiah.
- He is the door, in two ways (vv.7-10). He is leading the elect of Israel out of Judaism into Christian privilege.
- He is the Good Shepherd (vv.11-18). His character in contrast with the Pharisees is that of: (1) intimate knowledge of His own, and (2) laying down His life for His own.
- v.1 The door of entrance to the fold, where the fold is Judaism. The Lord entered through this door by fulfilling all the Old Testament scriptures and prophesies completely.
- v.7 The door of exit from the enclosure of Judaism. To exit before the Shepherd came would be apostasy.
- v.9 The door of entrance into Christian blessings.
The Allegory: Entrance of the Good Shepherd into the Fold (vv.1-6)
- He comes in the proper door. The door speaks of the scriptural qualifications for the Messiah, which only the true Shepherd would fulfill. When the Son came into this world, even though He was a Divine Person, still He submitted to all the Messianic requirements established by Jehovah in the Old Testament. His entrance through the door is fully detailed in Matthew’s gospel. His herald (Mal. 3:1), His place of birth (Mic. 5:2), His royal lineage (Matt. 1), His virgin birth (Isa. 7:14), the character of His ministry (Isa. 42:1-4), the sphere of His ministry (Isa. 9:2), the manner of His presentation to Israel (Zec. 9:9), His betrayal (Zech. 11:12-13), His sufferings (Isa. 53), His time of death (Dan. 9:26) were all the fulfillment of Messianic prophecy. There were some “thieves and robbers” that entered the sheep fold, but they came in by another way; i.e. not in fulfillment of prophecy. These were false Messiahs; such as Theudas and Judas of Galilee (Acts 5:36-37). Their mission was to create a following of Jews after themselves… an action characterized by the Lord as “stealing the sheep”. But they did not meet the requirements for the Messiah.
- The Porter opens to Him. This unnamed servant who operates the door is a picture of the Spirit of God; see seven figures of the Holy Spirit in John’s gospel. The action described as “the porter openeth” is the providential working of the Spirit of God to mark out Jesus as the Messiah. The begetting power of His incarnation was the Spirit of God (Matt. 1:18). His identification by John the Baptist (John 1:29-34), and the witness from heaven at the Jordan baptism (Matt. 3:16-17) was by the Spirit of God. This identification by the Spirit of God is what Paul calls His being “justified in the Spirit” (1 Tim. 3:16). Through the work of the Porter there was a small formation of sheep ready to receive the Shepherd when He entered the fold; for we read of His reception by a small remnant in Jerusalem (Simeon and Anna, Luke 2:25-38).
- The sheep hear His voice. Those in Israel who truly loved God, the elect, responded to the “voice” or teaching of Jesus. An example is the two disciples of John who “heard him speak, and they followed Jesus” (John 1:37). The hearing of His voice indicates faith; the existence or the impartation of divine life… “an hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that have heard shall live” (John 5:25). These sheep are those referred to as “as many as received Him” which were “born of God” (John 1:12, 13).
- The thief. The thief is looking to “steal, kill, and to destroy”. A theft occurs any time there in an unauthorized taking of property from another; and usually craftiness or subtlety is involved. This type of enemy might refer to a heretical man, who would, through “good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting” (Rom. 16:18), and draw sheep away from the rightful Shepherd. In the words of Paul, “of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them” (Acts 20:30). An illustration of this in the Old Testament is Absalom, who “stole the hearts of the men of Israel” (2 Sam. 15:6).
- The robber. Robbery is essentially theft accomplished through the use of physical force or fear. This might refer to a tyrannical overseer, one who dictates total control over the sheep, and views them, not as ones he can serve, but as ones who ought to serve him. Strictly speaking, the robber is only connected with the fold of Judaism. However, an example in a Christian context might be “Diotrephes, who loves to have the first place” known for refusing apostles and casting ones out of the assembly (3 John 9-10).
- The stranger. The stranger is mentioned as using his voice to lead sheep astray, which indicates teaching or presenting doctrine. This type of enemy might refer to a false teacher. Peter warns that “there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies” (2 Pet. 2:1).
- The hireling. A hireling is one who takes the place of oversight without a care for the flock. This type of enemy might refer to an indifferent overseer. He doesn’t encourage the evil, but he doesn’t resist it either. Paul exhorted the Ephesian elders; “take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers…” (Act 20:28). This may or may not be a true believer. It is one in the place of oversight without a true care for the flock. Wolves are allowed in on the hireling’s watch.
- The wolf. The wolf comes is from outside, not from the inside; “after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock” (Acts 20:29). This type might refer to an apostate infiltrator. Jude refers to them as “certain men crept in unawares” (Jude 4). The effect of the wolf is to “scatter” the sheep; i.e. to distract them from following Christ.
The Door of the Sheep: Exit and Entrance (vv.7-10)
The Door of Exit from Judaism: Authority to Exit (vv.7-8)
The Door of Entrance into Christianity: Security & Liberty (vv.9-10)
- (John 1) The Son must come and reveal God to man.
- (John 3) The work of redemption must be accomplished.
- (John 4) The Spirit of God must take up residence in the believer.
The Good Shepherd (vv.11-18)
The Shepherd’s Sacrificial Love for His Sheep (vv.11-13)
Also, the Antichrist can be seen typically in the following ten persons: Abimelech (Judges 9), Saul (1 Samuel 8-31), Absalom (2 Samuel 15-19), Ahab (1 Kings 16-18), Ahaz (2 Kings 16), Shebna (Isaiah 22), Zedekiah (Jeremiah 39 & 52), Haman (Esther 3-7), Herod (Matthew 2), and the Hireling (John 10).Read more…
The Mutual Knowledge of the Shepherd and His Sheep (vv.14-15)
Bringing in Other Sheep to form One Flock around One Person (v.16)
The Intrinsic Value of the Son’s Death, His Divine Power & Perfect Obedience (vv.17-18)
A Division Occurs Among the Jews (10:19-21)
The Lord in Solomon’s Porch: Encounter with Unbelievers, Not His Sheep (10:22-38)
The “Feast of the Dedication” also called the “Feast of Lights” occurred in the winter (John 10:22). It was not one of the feasts of Jehovah, but it began in the times of the Maccabees. After Antiochus Epiphanies desecrated the temple, it remained in a defiled condition for 2300 days (Daniel 8:14). This period was brought to a close partly by the force and courage of the Maccabees. The temple was once more cleansed, and the Jewish worship resumed. When they went to light the menorah in the Temple, only one flask of holy oil was found, which was enough to burn for one day, yet it burned for eight days! This was accomplished in the winter time. Jews worldwide to this day celebrate “Hanukkah” (“dedication”) for eight days, usually in December. This feast, along with the "Days of Purim" (Est. 9) are two man-made feasts that the Jews had, different than the seven feasts of Jehovah. Evidently the Lord went along with man-made feasts, but never commended them.It was physically winter, but it was morally winter as well. The beautiful declarations of the truth of the Son of God are met with by ice-cold indifference from the Jews (v.24).
was a porch or colonnade attached to the Temple. It was originally constructed by King Solomon (1 Kings 6:2–3), and later rebuilt after a fashion by Herod. Solomon's porch comes up three times in the scripture, and each time it is connected with a notable rejection of God by Israel. The first mention is John 10:23, where Jesus had presented Himself as the Good Shepherd, and then was attacked by the Jews who tried to stone Him for claiming equality with God. The second mention is in Acts 3, where Peter and John had healed the lame man, and Peter held out the provisional offer of repentance to Israel, then the Jewish leaders cast Peter and John into the hold (Acts 4). The third mention is in Acts 5, where Israel had witnessed the unity of the believers and the signs of power among them, and the High Priest cast the Apostles into prison, where they were beaten. In all three cases, Israel was presented with grace, and rejected it with hostile energy.It would seem that the contrast in this chapter is between the rejection of Christ by those more privileged Jews in Solomon’s porch, and the reception of Christ by those less privileged Jews beyond Jordan (vv.39-42).
Anti-sheep Marked by Unbelief (vv.24-26)
The Characteristics of the True Sheep of Christ (vv.27-30)
Indeed, the Son and the Father are one, not one Person, but one thing, one Divine nature or essence (as other Scriptures equally prove).2
Controversy over Christ’s Deity (vv.31-37)
The Lord Beyond Jordan: Encounter with Many Believers, His Sheep (10:39-42)
- The Lord does not add here “for the sheep,” nor should we limit His death to ourselves. He lets us see the value His own laying down His life had in itself. It was a fresh motive for the Father’s love; and no wonder, if it were only as the unfathomable depth to which His own devotedness could go down. But, indeed, none but the Father knows what He found in it of love, confidence in Him, self-abandonment, and moral excellence in every way, crowned by the personal dignity of Him Who, standing in ineffably near relationship to the Father Himself, was thus pleased to die. Hence it could not but be that the Son would take His life again, not now in connection with the earth and man living on it, but risen from the dead, and so the power and pattern of Christianity. – Kelly, William. Exposition of the Gospel of John.
- Kelly, William. An Exposition of the Gospel of John. T. Weston, 1898. p.220
- “And when Allah will say: O Isa (Jesus) son of Marium (Mary)! did you say to men, Take me and my mother for two gods besides Allah he will say: Glory be to Thee, it did not befit me that I should say what I had no right to (say); if I had said it, Thou wouldst indeed have known it; Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in Thy mind, surely Thou art the great Knower of the unseen things.” – The Quran, sura 5, verse 116, Shakir Translation
- Huebner, R. A. The Eternal Relationships in the Godhead: Fundamental Truth Concerning the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Word, the Eternal Life, and the Eternal Sonship. Vol. 1, Present Truth Publishers, 1997. p.66