Christ is Superior to the Entire Jewish System: Two Covenants
Hebrews 8:1 – 10:18
Hebrews 8:1 – 10:18
1 Now a summary of the things of which we are speaking is, We have such a one high priest who has sat down on the right hand of the throne of the greatness in the heavens; 2 minister of the holy places and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord has pitched, and not man.
A Better Covenant (8:3-13)
3 For every high priest is constituted for the offering both of gifts and sacrifices; whence it is needful that this one also should have something which he may offer. 4 If then indeed he were upon earth, he would not even be a priest, there being those who offer the gifts according to the law, 5 (who serve the representation and shadow of heavenly things, according as Moses was oracularly told when about to make the tabernacle; for See, saith He, that thou make all things according to the pattern which has been shewn to thee in the mountain.) 6 But now he has got a more excellent ministry, by so much as he is mediator of a better covenant, which is established on the footing of better promises. 7 For if that first was faultless, place had not been sought for a second. 8 For finding fault, he says to them, Behold, days come, saith the Lord, and I will consummate a new covenant as regards the house of Israel, and as regards the house of Juda; 9 not according to the covenant which I made to their fathers in the day of my taking their hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; because “they” did not continue in my covenant, and “I” did not regard them, saith the Lord. 10 Because this is the covenant that I will covenant to the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord: Giving my laws into their mind, I will write them also upon their hearts; and I will be to them for God, and “they” shall be to me for people. 11 And they shall not teach each his fellow-citizen, and each his brother, saying, Know the Lord; because all shall know me in themselves, from the little one among them unto the great among them. 12 Because I will be merciful to their unrighteousnesses, and their sins and their lawlessnesses I will never remember any more. 13 In that he says New, he has made the first old; but that which grows old and aged is near disappearing.
A Better Sanctuary (9:1-12)
1 The first therefore also indeed had ordinances of service, and the sanctuary, a worldly one. 2 For a tabernacle was set up; the first, in which were both the candlestick and the table and the exposition of the loaves, which is called Holy; 3 but after the second veil a tabernacle which is called Holy of holies, 4 having a golden censer, and the ark of the covenant, covered round in every part with gold, in which were the golden pot that had the manna, and the rod of Aaron that had sprouted, and the tables of the covenant; 5 and above over it the cherubim of glory shadowing the mercy-seat; concerning which it is not now the time to speak in detail. 6 Now these things being thus ordered, into the first tabernacle the priests enter at all times, accomplishing the services; 7 but into the second, the high priest only, once a year, not without blood, which he offers for himself and for the errors of the people: 8 the Holy Spirit shewing this, that the way of the holy of holies has not yet been made manifest while as yet the first tabernacle has its standing; 9 the which is an image for the present time, according to which both gifts and sacrifices, unable to perfect as to conscience him that worshipped, are offered, 10 consisting only of meats and drinks and divers washings, ordinances of flesh, imposed until the time of setting things right. 11 But Christ being come high priest of the good things to come, by the better and more perfect tabernacle not made with hand, (that is, not of this creation,) 12 nor by blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood, has entered in once for all into the holy of holies, having found an eternal redemption.
A Better Sacrifice (9:13 – 10:18)
The Necessity of Shed Blood (9:13-22)
13 For if the blood of goats and bulls, and a heifer’s ashes sprinkling the defiled, sanctifies for the purity of the flesh, 14 how much rather shall the blood of the Christ, who by the eternal Spirit offered himself spotless to God, purify your conscience from dead works to worship the living God? 15 And for this reason he is mediator of a new covenant, so that, death having taken place for redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant, the called might receive the promise of the eternal inheritance. 16 (For where there is a testament, the death of the testator must needs come in. 17 For a testament is of force when men are dead, since it is in no way of force while the testator is alive.) 18 Whence neither the first was inaugurated without blood. 19 For every commandment having been spoken according to the law by Moses to all the people; having taken the blood of calves and goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, he sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20 saying, This is the blood of the covenant which God has enjoined to you. 21 And the tabernacle too and all the vessels of service he sprinkled in like manner with blood; 22 and almost all things are purified with blood according to the law, and without blood-shedding there is no remission.
Shedding of Blood Required to Purify the Heavenly Sanctuary (9:23-28)
23 It was necessary then that the figurative representations of the things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with sacrifices better than these. 24 For the Christ is not entered into holy places made with hand, figures of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear before the face of God for us: 25 nor in order that he should offer himself often, as the high priest enters into the holy places every year with blood not his own; 26 since he had then been obliged often to suffer from the foundation of the world. But now once in the consummation of the ages he has been manifested for the putting away of sin by his sacrifice.
The consummation of the ages. The outcome of “this age” and “the age to come” was been manifested by the cross. Concerning “this age”, the outcome determined is that the first man is proved a complete failure. Concerning the “age to come”, the Second Man has put right and glorified God in all that the second man has failed. When you get the expression “consummation of the ages” or “ends of the ages” it isn’t saying that we are living during the days of end-times prophecy. Rather, we have all the accumulated light of the ages in view. See encyclopedia entry.
27 And forasmuch as it is the portion of men once to die, and after this judgment; 28 thus the Christ also, having been once offered to bear the sins of many, shall appear to those that look for him the second time without sin for salvation.
1 For the law, having a shadow of the coming good things, not the image itself of the things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually yearly, perfect those who approach. 2 Since, would they not indeed have ceased being offered, on account of the worshippers once purged having no longer any conscience of sins? 3 But in these there is a calling to mind of sins yearly. 4 For blood of bulls and goats is incapable of taking away sins. 5 Wherefore coming into the world he says, “Sacrifice and offering thou willedst not; but thou hast prepared me a body. 6 Thou tookest no pleasure in burnt-offerings and sacrifices for sin. 7 Then I said, Lo, I come (in the roll of the book it is written of me) to do, O God, thy will.” [Psalm 40:6-8] 8 Above, saying “Sacrifices and offerings and burnt-offerings and sacrifices for sin thou willedst not, neither tookest pleasure in” (which are offered according to the law); 9 then he said, “Lo, I come to do thy will.” He takes away the first that he may establish the second; 10 by which will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 11 And every priest stands daily ministering, and offering often the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. 12 But “he”, having offered one sacrifice for sins, sat down in perpetuity at the right hand of God, 13 waiting from henceforth until his enemies be set for the footstool of his feet. 14 For by one offering he has perfected in perpetuity the sanctified. 15 And the Holy Spirit also bears us witness of it; for after what was said: 16 This is the covenant which I will establish towards them after those days, saith the Lord: Giving my laws into their hearts, I will write them also in their understandings; 17 and their sins and their lawlessnesses I will never remember any more. 18 But where there is remission of these, there is no longer a sacrifice for sin.