Titus 2

Behavior in Our Individual Stations in Life
Titus 2
Titus 2. This chapter is characterized by what we have in v.1; “the things that become sound teaching”. The first half of the chapter presents the practical instructions for believers in their individual stations in life, such that the conduct of the saints would “adorn the doctrine” (Titus 2:10). This is followed by the motivations for good conduct in vv.11-14. God not only tells us how to walk right but gives us reasons why! At the end (v.15), Titus’ apostolic commission is reinforced.

Instructions for Believers in Various Stations of Life (2:1-10)

¶ 1 But do “thou” speak the things that become sound teaching; v.1 Conduct Suited to Sound Teaching. Turning from a description of the false Judaizing teachers, Paul gives Titus instructions for the practical conduct of the saints. What Titus was to say to the saints was to be based on sound doctrine. Good behavior goes hand in hand with sound doctrine, and should accompany it; “knowledge of the truth which is according to piety” (Tit. 1:1). There is always a danger in Christianity to divorce doctrine from practice, but it ought never to be. What follows are things that Titus was to communicate to the saints in Crete, covering special instruction for believers in various roles and stations in life. When a person is saved, they pass through death in association with Christ, bringing an end to the old associations in the flesh. We might think that such distinctions as men vs. women, old vs. young, etc. should have nothing to do with us in the new creation. Nevertheless, the natural roles and relationships in which a person is placed by God are not to be disregarded, because we are still in them, and there are behaviors appropriate to each.

Older Men (v.2)

2 that the elder men be sober, grave, discreet, sound in faith, in love, in patience; v.2 Older Men. It is noteworthy that Paul begins with the older ones: first men, then women. Setting things in order doesn’t start with the young people in the assembly. The older ones really set the tone and become a pattern of good works (v.7). The behavior required of older men is like the qualities found in an overseer (ch.1). This shows us that an orderly, upright, godly lifestyle is something not limited to a certain class only.
  1. Older men are first to be “sober” or of sound moral judgment. This is something that comes from walking daily in fellowship with God.
  2. Second, they should be “grave” or of honorable character. It will not do for older men to be characterized as foolish, disrespectful, or vulgar.
  3. Third, they should be “discreet”, which means having carefulness or discernment about one’s behavior, speech, and appearance. A discrete person acts appropriately, is trustworthy with confidential information, and isn’t loud or obnoxious.
  4. Finally, an older man should be “sound” or established in three areas: personal “faith” or confidence in God, divine “love” toward others, and “patience” with difficult circumstances. Two words that are often used in the New Testament exhortations are endurance and patience. Endurance usually has to do with difficult circumstances, such as sickness or persecution. Patience usually has to with difficult relationships, particularly with those we disagree with or those who dislike and treat us poorly.

Older Women (v.3)

3 that the elder women in like manner be in deportment as becoming those who have to say to sacred things, not slanderers, not enslaved to much wine, teachers of what is right; v.3 Older Women. While the more responsible are addressed first (older men), the women have just as important a role in good behavior, and therefore it says, “the elder women in like manner”.
  1. First, the older women are to “be in deportment as becoming those who have to say to sacred things”. This covers the general demeanor of a godly older sister. “Deportment” covers clothing, but more than that it covers the manners and behavior of a person as well. Here the emphasis is on a deportment that is respectful or reverent; demeanor that is seemly for someone who has to do with sacred things. What an elevated place older women have in Christianity!
  2. Second, older women are to be not slanderers”. The Greek word here could be translated “adversaries”, and it has the thought of a personal enemy. Christian women are not to be characterized by making personal attacks against the character of others through false statements. Nothing is more demoralizing to victims or destructive to the unity of the assembly as slander.
  3. Third, older women are to be “not enslaved to much wine”. Alcohol is allowed for the Christian and even beneficial, when used in moderation. However, in excessive amounts, alcohol numbs the senses and perverts moral judgment, like the “much wine” spoken of here. Carelessness with alcohol can lead to drunkenness on one hand (which is a positive sin, 1 Cor. 5:11), or to addiction to alcohol on the other hand (also wrong, 1 Cor. 6:12). There can be a special tendency for older women to be tempted by alcohol in later years, after the busyness of raising children is past, and the days seem to pass slowly. Older women are not to be “enslaved” to alcohol, but instead to be under the influence of the Spirit of God! Read Ephesians 5:18.
  4. Fourth, older women are to be “teachers of what is right”. This means they are to instruct others in behavior that is approved of God, whether in what they say (as to younger women, v.4) or by their example.
Older Women Teaching Younger Women. Titus 2:4 is an important provision of God for His people. One of the most difficult roles a believer can find themselves in is that of a young wife or young mother. And that the same time, those roles are some of the most vital in the home and in the assembly. This is especially true in modern western culture, where society has sought to reverse the roles of men and women and belittle the scriptural work of a godly wife and mother. Young women need instruction, but this instruction is often in areas that are not covered in the assembly meetings where brothers are found ministering the Word. Therefore, older Christian women have the privilege and responsibility of teaching younger women how to fill their role in a way that is pleasing to the Lord. Older women cannot instruct younger women in things they haven’t proven themselves; hence they should be characterized by what we have in v.3. This doesn’t mean there is no profit in passing down lessons an older sister has learned by mistake. Older women do teach by example, but the word “admonish” in v.4 shows that it cannot be restricted to example only. This “teaching” requires verbal instruction, although it should be coupled with a godly example. Often this teaching is best done one-on-one, although there are occasions where group settings would be appropriate. The admonition described in vv.4-5 is not to be motivated by irritation or frustration, but rather by love of the older sisters toward the younger. The younger sisters must remember that as well.

Young Women (vv.4-5) 

4 that they may admonish the young women to be attached to their husbands, to be attached to their children, 5 discreet, chaste, diligent in home work, good, subject to their own husbands, that the word of God may not be evil spoken of. vv.4-5 Young Women. Titus was given a word to exhort the older men, the older women, and the younger men. But Titus was not told to exhort the young women, as it could be unseemly and/or set an example that could be abused and tend to disorder in Crete. The things the young women needed to hear would be more appropriate coming from older women, and so Titus was to tell the older women what they should speak to the younger. Notice that Timothy was told to speak to younger women, showing that it is not entirely prohibited. But there the general exhortation is governed by “with all purity” (1 Tim. 5:2). To “admonish” is to warn or reprimand someone firmly, and this might be a difficult thing for the older women to give, and also for the younger women to receive. Nevertheless, the admonition of older women to younger women is very important!
  1. First, the younger women are “to be attached to their husbands”. This shows that a young wife is not to be detached from or independent of her husband. It is God’s order for a woman to join her husband as a support to him – spiritually, emotionally, and physically – rather than have a separate direction for her life. We all have the flesh, and the flesh tends to be selfish and independent. Hence, the need for this admonition.
  2. Second, the younger women are “to be attached to their children”. In addition to being devoted to her husband, a young mother should be committed to her children. This might seem like a natural tendency for mothers to be attached to their children, and therefore that it shouldn’t have to be said. Nature itself teaches us that a mother will sacrifice everything for the care and protection of her children. However, the world around us is opposed to God’s order in every way, even to the point of altering society to run against the grain of natural affection (Rom. 1:31). In Western society, it has become commonplace for mothers of young children to leave their children in pursuit of a career. Frequently, children are placed in childcare services or secular institutions, not because it is best for the child, but because the mother has personal interests that take a higher priority than the children. There are circumstances where a Christian mother must work outside the home to provide for her family, and she that does so goes with God’s approval (Prov. 31:15). Nevertheless, God’s intention for a mother is to focus her attention on the home, to attend to her children, and to foster affection in the home.
  3. Third, the younger women are to be “discreet”, which means having carefulness or discernment about one’s behavior, speech, and appearance. A discrete person acts appropriately, is trustworthy with confidential information, and isn’t loud or obnoxious. Discretion is something that is effectively taught by example, or on a case-by-case basis.
  4. Fourth, the younger women are to be “chaste”, which means pure from extramarital sexual involvement, whether in action or in thought. For a young woman to be chaste, she would not engage in relationships with other men, avoid compromising situations with other men, refrain from immoral sexual fantasies, and avoid dressing provocatively. This is part of being “one flesh” in marriage. Sexual beauty is God’s gift to a woman, and God intends that beauty to be reserved for her husband, as her gift to him, and not to be shared with anyone else. It is precisely in areas like this that it would be inappropriate for a man to admonish a young woman, whereas an older woman can do so quite effectively. 
  5. Fifth, the younger women are to be “diligent in home work”, which covers the domestic management, organization, and operation of the home (1 Tim. 5:14); e.g. cooking, cleaning, and caring for young children. These things are despised in the world but valued by God and vital to an orderly, peaceful, and happy home. Older women who have experience in these things are well suited to instruct the younger women in “home work”. Note that it doesn’t say the home must be perfectly clean, or that the food must be gourmet-level. It simply says “diligent”. Sometimes an over-occupation with home work can hinder growth in other areas (Luke 10:40).
  6. Sixth, the younger women are to be “good”, which means kindness in desires and actions toward others. Christian wives and mothers are to be a source of blessing in their home, rather than a source of problems and contention (Prov. 21:19). This can only be done by walking in communion with God through daily prayer and reading His Word.
  7. Seventh, the younger women are to be “subject to their own husbands”, which means they are to accept and embrace the role that God intends for the wife, as under the headship of her husband. You never find the wife enjoined in scripture to obey her husband, but to submit, because obedience can have the thought of distance (such as a husband who treats his wife as a child). However, subjection will manifest itself in obedience as in the case of Sarah (1 Pet. 3:6). Also, we never find the exhortation for a wife to love her husband because that will be the automatic response of her heart to her husband’s love. Submission in marriage can be difficult, especially when a woman is married to an ungodly, extreme, or cowardly man. Nevertheless, this is God’s order in marriage, and it is a secret to happiness in the Christian home. Subjection of the wife is something that has been totally rejected, and even reversed, in Western society. When this order is reversed, entire families can be destroyed. It is important too that the submission be to “their own husbands”, and not to another man. 
The consequence of the younger women living out this godly behavior is “that the word of God may not be evil spoken of”. The conduct of young wives and mothers, and particularly that of being subject to their own husbands, has a profound impact of the testimony of the Church here in this world! Likewise, the Devil is active in the areas covered by vv.4-5 to find an opening to attack the testimony and bring blame against the Word of God itself through the conduct of younger women. Never think that our practical conduct is trivial!

Young Men (vv.6-8)

6 The younger men in like manner exhort to be discreet: 7 in all things affording thyself as a pattern of good works; in teaching uncorruptedness, gravity, 8 a sound word, not to be condemned; that he who is opposed may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say about us: vv.6-8 Young Men: Titus a Pattern. When it came to the young men, Titus was to address them directly. He is classed with the young men, showing that he also was young, although perhaps not as young as Timothy. Titus was to be a “pattern of good works”. His life would be an example to the young men of Crete. Notice that only the first thing was to be exhorted (v.6), and the other four things were to be demonstrated by Titus as a pattern!
  1. First, the younger men are to be “discreet”, or careful, showing discernment about one’s behavior, speech, and appearance. Appropriate behavior is not something young men are particularly known for, and sound judgment is the first step in right behavior.
  2. Second, the younger men are to be characterized by “good works”, which goes beyond kindness to include generally acting appropriately as God would have us to act in a given situation.
  3. Third, the younger men are to have “in teaching uncorruptedness”, meaning that their doctrine should be pure, without any taint of evil. This was especially important for Titus as a pattern for the young men.
  4. Fourth, the younger men are to have “gravity”, or maintain an honorable character. This would preclude any kind of foolishness, dishonesty, evil associations, or disrespectful behavior.
  5. Fifth, the younger men are to have “a sound word, not to be condemned”. This covers more generally the speech of the young men, rather than just their doctrine. Honesty, sincerity, and trustworthiness make a man’s speech “sound”, and leave no opening for condemning accusations.
The consequence of the young men living out this godly behavior is “that he who is opposed may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say about us”. Good behavior is not only important to set a good example before our friends, but also to deny an opportunity for our enemies. Those who are opposed to Christianity are ready to take advantage of wrong behavior in young Christian men to speak evil of “us”, or Christians generally. Perhaps here it was the Judaizing teachers that were looking to accuse Paul and his followers of some hypocrisy whereby they could have excuse to reject his doctrine. If Titus maintained good behavior, as a pattern for other young men, this would cause those opposed to the truth of God to be ashamed, without anything to say against them.

Slaves (vv.9-10)

Slavery and the New Testament. In the early days of Christianity, the institution of slavery still existed. The New Testament was not written to cause a world-wide slave revolt in the Roman Empire. However, knowing God's heart as revealed in scripture, we can see that slavery, in the sense of treating human beings as property, is morally wrong. The Law of Moses put certain limits on slavery. To sell a person into slavery against their will was condemned (Ex. 21:16). For Hebrew servants, there was the year of release, which came after six years (Deuteronomy 15:12-18). Slaves also had to observe the Sabbath rest (Deut. 5:14). God took these limitations very seriously (see Jeremiah 34:8-22). When we look at these principles, it becomes clear that to be a slave in Hebrew society was most likely a far better portion than to be a slave in pagan society. Nevertheless, "the law made nothing perfect" (Heb. 7:19). From reading both Old and New Testament scriptures, we see that bondage against a person's will was never God's desire. When we come to the New Testament, God does not overthrow the institution of slavery. From scriptures like 1 Timothy 6:1 we can see that there is nothing morally wrong with the master/servant relationship, if it is conducted in an honorable way. Instead of looking to change society, God gives instructions for how one can be an overcomer in the circumstances of slavery! When a slave was saved, they were brought into a new creation that totally eclipsed their outward identity; "...there is neither bond nor free... for ye are all one in Christ Jesus" (Gal. 3:28), and were given higher motives in their service, "as unto the Lord" (Eph. 6:7). History shows that the gospel spread in the first century most quickly through the slave population of the Roman Empire!
Application to Employees. Although much of the world today is free from slavery, there is still an application to us of these New Testament principles concerning slaves or servants. Although many Christians today are not in slavery, most must work for a living. The employer/employee relationship is similar in many ways to the master/servant relationship, as the principles of respect, honesty, obedience, and fair treatment still apply.
9 bondmen to be subject to their own masters, to make themselves acceptable in everything; not gainsaying; 10 not robbing their masters, but shewing all good fidelity, that they may adorn the teaching which is of our Saviour God in all things. vv.9-10 Bondmen. Paul next addresses bondmen or slaves. It might be natural to think that the conduct of the lowest class of society is not important, but Paul shows the converse. More is addressed to servants or slaves in the New Testament than to masters. Those in difficult circumstances have a terrific opportunity to “adorn the doctrine”.
  1. First, slaves were “to be subject to their own masters”. To be subject is to recognize that one is under the authority and direction of another. Subjection is the opposition of rebellion or insurrection. Rather than encourage slaves to rebel, Christianity causes them to fulfil the duties of their station while maintaining a good attitude in it.
  2. Second, slaves were “to make themselves acceptable in everything”. This goes beyond mere legal obedience; a Christian servant would seek to please his master in every way possible. This means going beyond the bare minimum, and doing things you know the boss would like, even if it isn’t explicitly required. However, in seeking to be acceptable to one’s earthly master, a servant must never lose sight of Christ, who he ultimately answers to!
  3. Third, slaves were to be characterized by “not gainsaying”. This refers to the practice of contradicting or talking back to the master, to challenge his commands or authority. In all this we can follow Christ as our perfect example (Rom. 15:3).
  4. Fourth, slaves were not to be “robbing their masters”. As those who had their freedom stolen from them, and in many cases having been treated poorly by their master, a slave might feel justified in retaliating by robbing from his master. This can take the form of stealing the master’s possessions, but also stealing time through loitering on the job.
  5. Fifth, slaves were to be “shewing all good fidelity”, meaning they should be faithful and loyal to their masters. A Christian slave ought to be the very best possible!
The outcome of having this behavior as Christian slaves was that “they may adorn the teaching which is of our Saviour God in all things”. To adorn something is to decorate it or enhance the beauty of it. Good behavior goes hand in hand with sound doctrine, and it is what enhances the beauty of that doctrine. Even a Roman house-slave, at the very bottom rung of society, if living according to the principles of the Word of God, could bring honor to Christian doctrine, and make Christianity appealing to those who observe! This is no less true today as it was 2000 years ago. When God is mentioned as “God our Savior” (not as “God our Father” as in other places) He assumes a character in relation to all mankind; as a God of mercy and grace, reaching out as a deliverer for all mankind.

Motivation for Good Conduct (2:11-14)

A Practical Summary of Christianity. In the following verses we have a summary of what Christianity is, not so much of the doctrine of Christianity, but what it looks like in practice.1 We have grace, salvation offered to all men, separation from the world, the hope of the Lord’s coming, and the redemption of the believer.
11 For the grace of God which carries with it salvation for all men has appeared, v.11 The Grace of God. Paul new transitions from laying out the proper conduct of men, women, bondmen, etc. to discuss the great motivation for good works. It is not the law, which the Judaizing teachers were pushing, that motivates Christian conduct, but rather “the grace of God”. The law could only work wrath (Rom. 4:15), produce death (2 Cor. 3:7), and make sin exceeding sinful (Rom. 7:13). The grace of God appeared in the Person of Christ (John 1:17), and was manifested in fullness on the cross. God’s gracious heart has been set at liberty to abound toward all men! Therefore He is “our Saviour God” (v.10). The same grace of God that appeared in the Person of Christ and saved us from our sins, now teaches us how to live in a way that is acceptable to God! It doesn’t say that all men are saved, as the universalists teach, but rather that grace “carries with it salvation for all men”. In other words, the grace of God is toward all men, because all were sinners, making salvation available to all, though only believers get the blessing (Rom. 3:22-23).2 The point here is that a sense of what God has done for us in grace teaches us: to live in a way that is pleasing to Christ (v.12), to live in expectation of the return of Christ (v.13), and to live with the realization that we belong to Christ because He gave all for us (v.14). 
12 teaching us that, having denied impiety and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, and justly, and piously in the present course of things, v.12 Lesson #1: How to Live. Grace teaches us that all that Christ suffered for on the cross has no place in our lives. It causes us to deny the things that are wrong and instead live pleasing to the Lord. “Impiety” is anything opposed to God, and “worldly lusts” are the desires of the flesh that are common in the world around us. The law might show us that these things are wrong, but only grace can teach us to deny them. An appreciation of grace in our soul is the strongest force in keeping us from sin! Old habits are denied, and a new lifestyle is embraced. We are now to live “soberly” with sound moral judgment, “righteously” with consistency in our relationships and duties, and “piously” with complete devotion to Him! Sobriety is toward ourselves, righteousness is toward others, and piety is toward God!3 The backdrop is “the present course of things”, which is an evil age. This present age became evil with the rejection and crucifixion of our Lord (Gal. 1:4), and He gave Himself for us to deliver us from the evil. Unbelievers around have nothing to live for beyond the present, but the Christian ought to be completely different.
13 awaiting the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ; v.13 Lesson #2: What We are Waiting For. Grace leads to glory. It gives us an object in heaven, and a hope that draws our attention and our affections there, to where He is. From the very beginning of the Church, the hope constantly put before the Lord’s people is the return of Christ. To wait for Christ is to be expecting Him every day! There are two parts to the second coming of Christ, which are distinguished in this one expression;the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ”.4 The “blessed hope” refers to the first part of the second coming, when the Lord will descend from heaven, we will meet Him in the air, and He will take us to be with Himself. This first pare of of the return of Christ is called the rapture. This is followed by the second part, when the Lord manifests Himself before the world in glory, displays us along with Himself as His co-heirs, and takes the kingdom in power. This second part is called the appearing, and it will take place at the end of Daniel’s seventieth week, while the the rapture will take place before the seventieth week! The “and” is important, showing a distinction between these two parts. The “appearing of the glory” refers to the moment of Christ’s manifestation, similar to “the appearing of his coming” (2 Thess. 2:8). It is the time when He who was rejected and cast out will be revealed as “our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ”.
How do we know “the blessed hope” is the rapture? Some would deny that the “blessed hope” is the rapture and would like to equate it to the appearing. First, we must see that the conjunction “and” is used,5 distinguishing the two phrases, and making the “blessed hope” distinct from the appearing. Second, we must think about what God has set forward as the special and happy prospect for the Church. We have an expression that is used in connection with couples engaged to be married. When we speak about their “happy day”, it refers to one thing only. Some might argue that their “happy day” is when they move into their new house, or some other occasion. But any reasonable person can judge that the “happy day” in view for that couple is the day of their joining together in marriage. Just so for the Church of God. The blessed hope for the Church is that of Christ coming for us, to take us to be with Himself, and there to abide forever!
14 who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all lawlessness, and purify to himself a peculiar people, zealous for good works. v.14 Lesson #3: Who We Belong To, and the Price He Paid. The third thing that grace teaches us (because the things in vv.12-14 flow from grace) is that we belong to Christ as having been redeemed by Him! It is stated in a striking way; Christ “gave himself for us”. Whenever we have this expression, that He gave Himself, it is aimed at the heart and calculated to generate a response in us (Gal. 1:4; 2:20; Eph. 5:2; 5:25; 1 Tim. 2:6; Tit. 2:14). It wasn’t an angel that He gave, or a great sum of money, or even part of Himself, but His whole Person offered up on the cross. What more could He have given? He gave everything. Then two reasons are given for why our Savior gave Himself for us:
  1. To set us free. The Lord Jesus had to give Himself for us to “redeem us from all lawlessness”. Lawlessness is the general definition of sin, i.e. doing our own will in independence from God. We were in bondage to sin, living in the guilt of our sin, and without hope because of it. Christ on the cross accomplished the work to redeem us, which means to buy us back and set us free!
  2. To make us His own. But Christ has not set us free to serve ourselves. No, He wants us for Himself! Hence, He gave himself to “purify to himself a peculiar people, zealous for good works”. The word ‘peculiar’ is the Greek word ‘periousion’, only found once in the New Testament. It means a people all for Himself, i.e. a special possession! What a precious truth this is.6 Note that this doesn’t mean the Lord wants us to act or appear peculiar as some sort of a testimony. As disciples of a rejected Christ, we are different from the world, but we are not try to make ourselves appear strange or awkward for the purpose of standing out. To have a peculiar people, Christ had to “purify” us. We might think “purify” here refers to the on-going need of the application of the Word to cleanse us from the daily defilement of the world (John 13:10; Eph. 5:26). However, the word is in the aorist tense, which means a once-and-for-all action. This purification is accomplished by the “washing of regeneration” (Titus 3:5), which refers to the total change of lifestyle that a person undergoes when they are first born again and then sealed with the Spirit! This purification is a result of the whole work of grace in our lives. It is very similar to the practical result of putting on of the New Man (“put off all these”, Col. 3:8, and “put on therefore”, Col. 3:12). This purification was made possible through the work of the cross, where out of the pierced side of Christ flowed not only blood, but water. Read more… When we realize that Christ wants us for His own, and that He gave Himself to have us, it produces an intelligent response (Rom. 12:1) to be “zealous for good works”. Our lives should be consumed with one goal: to please Him who died for us.
We have a wonderful combination of redemption and belonging in v.14. We have been set free, but we belong to Christ. The example has been given many times of a slave who was purchased by a wealthy man only to be set at liberty. When set free, the slave turned to the man who bought him and placed himself entirely at his service; not out of legal obedience but constrained by love. So it is that grace teaches us.

Titus’ Charge Continued (2:15) 

15 These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no one despise thee. v.15 Authority and Qualification. Titus was to teach the things that become sound doctrine with authority. There is an increasing level of force with these three words: to “speak” is quite gentle, to “exhort” is more pointed and urgent, and to “rebuke” implies correction as if the exhortation was ignored, and therefore “with all authority” is added. Titus had authority in these things delegated to him by the apostle Paul. But there was something else that Titus must pay attention to: his own conduct must be above reproach so that no one would despise him. “Let no one despise thee” means that Titus was not to allow any opportunity for the enemy to discount his mission and ministry.
  1. Titus 2:11-15 contains a remarkable summary of Christianity, not exactly of its dogmas, but as a practical reality for men. – Darby, J.N. Synopsis of the Books of the Bible.
  2. It is not that all men receive the blessing; but, in its proper scope and nature, it addresses itself to all. – Kelly, W. Lectures Introductory to the New Testament, Volume 1, p.457
  3. You have the whole life of the Christian practically summed up in three words, “soberly, righteously, and godly”: “soberly” with self-restraint; “righteously” as regards others; “godly” with God. – Darby, J.N. The Saving Grace of God. Bible Treasury Vol. 9, p.308
  4. The one article given to the two objects brackets them together, not at all as if they are identical, but as here expressly associated to convey the complex and combined outlook. “The blessed hope” is that which alone can satisfy the heart; it is to be in the presence of Christ on high, changed at His coming into His likeness and with Him for ever. “The appearing of the” divine “glory” is bound up with it, and follows in due time, as that display or the divine manifestation in power, which our renewed souls cannot but desire… Kelly, W. Exposition of the Epistle to Titus.
  5. The conjunction here is the Greek word ‘kai’, translated ‘and’ or ‘also’ in the vast majority of instances, although rarely ‘even’ is meant (only 1% of the time). Sadly, the NIV, CSB, and ESV remove the conjunction giving the impression that the second expression defines the first, and eliminating the distinction between the terms.
  6. His grace would have a people for His own possession (not “peculiar” in words or manner, habit or feeling, but) for Him to have and delight in us as His own. How wondrous that He should care to have us, or make much of such a possession! What joy to the heart that so He feels and acts to us! – Kelly, W. Exposition of the Epistle to Titus.