THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
JOHN
 
Chapter: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

O  U  T  L  I  N  E
- Introduction to the Person of the Son John 1 - 2
         - Preface: Essential Truths Concerning the Person of the Son John 1:1-18
         - The Record of John as to the Superiority of Christ John 1:19-28         (P)
         - The 1st day: The Leading Features of Christianity John 1:29-42         (P)
         - The 2nd day: The Restoration of Israel through a Remnant John 1:43-51         (P)
         - The 3rd day: The Blessing of the Earth in the Millennium John 2:1-12           (G)
         - Judgement Of the Jews’ Temple & Presentation of the True Temple John 2:13-22         (J)
- Manifestation of the Son of God to meet Man’s Need John 3 – 12
   - Doctrinal: The Son supersedes failed Judaism in every way (life) John 3 – 7
         - Nicodemus: Man's Spiritual Condition, New Birth, and Eternal Life John 2:23 - 3:36   (J)
         - The Woman at the Well: Christian Satisfaction, Worship and Service John 4:1-42          (S)
         - The Nobleman’s Son: Grace to the Faithful Jewish Remnant John 4:43-54         (G)
         - The Infirm Man: Jesus as Son of God vs. the Law  John 5                   (J)
         - The Feeding of the Five-Thousand: Jesus as Son of Man vs. the Manna  John 6                   (G)
         - Feast of Tabernacles: Jesus as the Perfect Servant vs. Worldly Glory John 7                   (J)
   - Dispensational: The Rejected Son is the Only Hope of Blessing (Light) John 8 – 12
         - An Adulterous Woman: Jesus as Light of the World Rejected by Israel John 8                   (J)
         - Healing a blind man: Jesus as Light of the World awakens a remnant John 9                   (J)
         - The Door & the Good Shepherd: Christ becomes the Gathering Center John 10                 (J)
         - Raising of Lazarus: Jesus as Resurrection & Life, Israel’s Restoration John 11                 (J)
         - Entry Into Jerusalem: Christ as Blesser of the Millennial Earth John 12                 (J)
- The Upper Room Ministry John 13 – 17
         - Foot Washing: The Way Communion is Maintained John 13                 (J)
         - Comfort for the Disciples: Resources Available to the Christian John 14                 (J)
         - Things that Should Characterize Us During Christ's Absence John 15:1-8           (J)
         - Expect Hatred and Persecution John 15:18 - 16:6  (J)
         - The Work of the Holy Ghost John 16:7-15         (J)
         - Two Great Things that Were Coming John 16:16-27       (J)
         - Final Message to the Disciples John 16:28-33       (J)
         - The Son's high-priestly Prayer to the Father John 17                 (J)
- Passion Narratives John 18 - 19
         - Arrest in the Garden John 18:1-14         (J)
         - Jesus on Trial Before the Jews John 18:15-28       (J)
         - Jesus on Trial Before Pilate John 18:29-40       (J)
         - The Crucifixion Scene John 19:17-37       (J)
         - The Burial Scene John 19:38-42       (J)
- The Resurrection and Post-Resurrection appearances John 20 – 21
         - The Lord Appears to Mary Magdalene John 20:1-18         (J)
         - The Lord's First Appearance to the Disciples (Thomas Absent) John 20:19-25       (J)
         - The Lord's Second Appearance to the Disciples (Thomas Present) John 20:26-29       (J)
         - The Lord's Third Appearance to the Disciples (On the Sea of Galilee) John 21                 (G)
Geographical setting:

(P) = Perea;  (G) = Galilee;  (S) = Samaria;  (J) = Jerusalem or Judea

Not a Synoptic Gospel. The first three gospels are sometimes called “synoptic” gospels because they give a synopsis of the Lord’s life and ministry. John is different. John gives us the Lord as seen through the lens of Christianity. John was the only New Testament writer that wrote after the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in A.D. 70. John wrote around A.D. 90. At that time a powerful heresy was in the making, a group known as the “Gnostics” with so-called "higher knowledge", was denying some of the fundamental truths concerning the Person of our Lord Jesus Christ. John's gospel and epistles combat that heresy. Another difference is that the synoptic gospels focus on the Lord's ministry in Galilee, and only bring in the Lord’s final visit to Jerusalem prior to his death. The vast majority of John’s gospel brings out the other visits to Jerusalem and Judea (see right-hand column of outline) for the feasts, etc. (Deut. 16:16). The majority of John's gospel takes place in and around Jerusalem! One reason for this is that the Spirit is highlighting the Person of Jesus as a contrast to Jerusalem in every way. In the synoptic Gospels, we have Christ presented to man to be received, but man fails the test and Christ is rejected. in John, Christ is rejected by man and Israel from the beginning, and God's sovereign ways in grace and resurrection are brought in.

The Glories of the Son of God. In Matthew we have the Lord presented as the Christ, the Son of David. In Mark we have Him presented as the Perfect Servant. In Luke we have Him presented as the Son of Man. But in John He is presented as the Son of God. The Apostle John summarizes the purpose of his gospel in John 20:31; "But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name." The account of the Transfiguration of Christ is given in all three Synoptic Gospels, and yet neither Matthew, Mark, nor Luke were present for that event. The only gospel writer present was John, and he doesn't speak of it! If the scriptures were of human authorship, John would never have neglected that majestic experience. But the scriptures have a Divine design, and there is a reason for the inclusion or exclusion of every detail. In John, the whole Gospel is a transfiguration, where we can behold the glories of the only-begotten Son of God! The deity of Christ comes out on every page of this gospel. We find all the essential attributes of God to be in the Person of the Son even as a man on the earth!

Connection between Matthew, John, and Paul. The Gospel of John is the full development of what we have in this verse Matt. 11:27. Matthew documents the rejection of Jesus as the Christ, and John begins with His rejection as a forgone conclusion! In Matthew, man's rejection of the Christ is the cause of Him retreating into His eternal relationship as the Son of God (Matt. 11:17, Matt. 16:16), but just mentioned in a kernel. Then in John, the glories of the Son of God and the revelation of the Father are fully treated of. In Paul's writings, we have the glories of the Son as a foregone conclusion, and instead he unfolds those blessings that are ours as associated with the Person of the Son!

   Matthew    John    Paul
Foregone conclusion Old Testament history of Israel   Christ presented and rejected by His people   The glories of the Son,
the Father revealed
Main subject Christ presented and
rejected by His people
The glories of the Son,
the Father revealed
Our blessings in
association with Christ


Eight “I AM” statements in John:
  1. "I am the bread of life" (John 6: 35, 48)
  2. "I am the light of the world" (John 8:12, 9:5)
  3. "I am" (John 8:58; John 18:5)
  4. "I am the door" (John 10:9)
  5. "I am the good shepherd" (John 10:11)
  6. "I am the resurrection and the life" (John 11:25)
  7. "I am the way, the truth, and the life" (John 14:6)
  8. "I am the true vine" (John 15:1)
A Transition from Judaism to Christianity. In the Gospel of John we get the transition from Judaism to Christianity emphasized in every chapter. For example: in ch.1 Jesus is presented as the new gathering center in contrast with the earthly center of Jerusalem: for the Church, for the remnant of Israel (Psa. 50:5), and for the Millennial kingdom.

Seven “Hours” brought before us in John’s Gospel:

             - -  T H R E E  P a s t  - -
     1. John 7:28..............The Hour of His Sufferings From Man’s Hand 
     2. John 12:27............The Hour of His Atoning Sufferings
     3. John 13:1 + 17:1...The Hour of His Return to the Father

             - -  T W O  P r e s e n t   - -
     4. John 5:25..............The Hour of His Grace When Souls Are Quickened
     5. John 4:21..............The Hour of Worship in Spirit and Truth

             - -  T W O  F u t u r e   - -
     6. John 5:28..............The Hour of Resurrection
     7. John 2:4................The Hour of His Manifestation to the World

As a side note, it tells us in 1 John 2:18 that “it is the Last Hour”, referring to the dark day we live in now.

Seven Figures of the Holy Spirit used in John’s Gospel.
  1. ch.1 – a dove – representing spotless purity
  2. ch.3 – the wind – representing an unseen power
  3. ch.4 – a fountain – representing satisfaction and worship
  4. ch.7 – a river – representing channels of blessing to others
  5. ch.10 – the porter – representing a power to chance circumstances
  6. ch.14 – the comforter – representing sustenance and guidance
  7. ch.20 – breath – representing the character of resurrection life
Eight Signs in the Gospel of John – all to do with Israel:
  1. ch.2:1-10 – the marriage of Cana – Christ supplies Israel’s joy in the Millennium.
  2. ch.4:46-54 – the healing the nobleman’s son – Christ shows grace to the faithful remnant.
  3. ch.5:1-9 – the healing the infirm man – Christ does for Israel what the Law could never do.
  4. ch.6:5-14 – the feeding the 5000 – Israel under the Millennial, Melchizedek Priesthood of Christ.
  5. ch.6:15-21 – walking on the sea – Christ brings the faithful remnant through the tribulation.
  6. ch.9:1-7 – the healing of the blind man – Christ opens the spiritual eyes of the Remnant.
  7. ch.11:1-44 – the raising of Lazarus – Christ effects the national resurrection of Israel.
  8. ch.21:1-14 – the haul of fishes – Israel casting the Kingdom Gospel net into the sea of nations.
While the majority of the Lord’s time in John’s Gospel is spent in Judea and Jerusalem, five of the eight signs are done in Galilee! The three done in Judea were: the healing of the powerless, the blind, and the dead men (figures of Israel)!

Jesus often taught by contrast. In ch.3, Jesus used the most upright of pharisees to teach man’s need of new birth. In ch.4, Jesus used the most degraded woman in Samaria to teach the privileges of Christian worship. In ch.5, Jesus used an impotent man to teach His life-giving power. In ch.6, Jesus used a hungry crowd to teach that He alone can satisfy the hungry soul.

GnosticismBefore John died the seeds of Gnosticism had been sown… perhaps even before Paul's death. John’s epistles are written to defend against it. He refers to the Gnostics as “the deceivers” (2 John 1:7). Paul speaks of the Gnostic system as “oppositions of false-named knowledge” (1 Tim. 6:20). Peter warns of their false teaching, and Jude warns its moral effect on the Christian testimony. In this evil system, the Greek tendency to spiritualize and allegorize took over. To them, the spiritual was good, and matter was evil. Thus, they rejected the incarnation, because it was connecting the human with the divine. The Gnostics would try to separate “Jesus” from “Christ”, by making Christ an emanation (a shining out from a source) from God that was united to a mere man named Jesus at his baptism, but returned to God before Jesus’s death on the cross. In doing so, this evil system annulled the incarnation and the atonement. Gnosticism made Jesus a mere man, and even made their false-Christ less than God, because an emanation is less than its source. They taught that Christ was sent to make known the good God of heaven, and to expose the mischievous Demiurge (or, Jehovah of the Old Testament), who made the “evil world of matter”. The doctrine of the New Testament anticipates this irreverent and wicked system of doctrine by stating the simple truth of Christ's Person and work.

Life & Light & Love. Three great principles run throughout this Gospel:
  1. Life – the manner of existence that the Father and Son enjoy (love, joy, peace, holiness), which is far beyond what humans experience naturally. The Son came into this world and fully displayed that life; hence He is called “the Word of life” (1 John 1:1). This life is “in the son”. Not only is the Son able to impart that life to men (initially), but that life cannot be practically enjoyed and sustained apart from Him.
  2. Light – the character of God displayed toward man. There are really two aspects of light: (1) that which exposes man’s true moral condition, and (2) that which reveals the character of God to man. Christians “are light” in the Lord, and we “walk in the light”.
  3. Love – the heart of God revealed. Divine love is a settled disposition of favor. Love is what led Father to send the Son, and led the Son of God to the cross.
This provides us with a simple outline of the body of John’s gospel:
  1.  John 3 – 7 …………...….Life
  2.  John 8 – 12 …….........Light
  3.  John 13 – 19 …….…...Love
John’s Ministry vs. Paul’s Ministry. In John’s writings we have God presented to us, come down to us as a man; "the Word became flesh". In the epistles of Paul we have man presented to God, accepted “in Christ”.

Two main Divisions. This great section of John 3 – 12 can be further divided into two smaller divisions. First, the Lord Jesus is presented as the surpassing replacement for Judaism in John 3 – 7. Then, in John 8 – 12 we have a tremendous dispensational outline in which we get the Lord rejected by the nation, a remnant called out, the resurrection of Israel, and the Gentiles blessed in the Millennium.
  • Doctrinal (John 3  7). The first five chapters in this section take up principles relating to new birth and salvation. The theme is the greatness of the Person of the Son in contrast with Judaism.
    • John 3Lesson: no teaching of the Law is sufficient to reform the first man; all must be born again!
    • John 4 – Lesson: natural religion is unable to satisfy the human heart and produce true worship. Christ is sufficient for both!
    • John 5 – Lesson: the law is utterly futile to meet man’s need. The sovereign grace of the Son of God can meet that need!
    • John 6 – Lesson: natural man is incapable of living without an object. The Son of man is presented to be the object of faith!
    • John 7 – Lesson: man’s religion is unable to bless. The Son's promised return to the Father and sending of the Holy Spirit makes believers into channels of blessing!
  • Dispensational (John 8 – 12). The following chapters do not cease to be profoundly doctrinal, but while they continue to develop the doctrine, they also take on dispensational overtones.
    • John 8 – Lesson: the Son had come as the light of the world, but was rejected by the religious leaders in Jerusalem.
    • John 9 – Lesson: the Son undertakes to open the eyes of a remnant, who are cast out by the corrupt system.
    • John 10 – Lesson: the Son becomes the gathering center for that faithful remnant, which would later become the assembly!
    • John 11 – Lesson: the Son has the resurrection power to raise Israel up from national death! This is something the Law could never do.
    • John 12 – Lesson: the kingdom will be established, the Gentiles will be blessed, and the Son will see the fruit of His travail!

References

  1. John (by F. B. Hole)
  2. Comments on the Gospel of John (by L. M. Grant)
  3. An Exposition of the Gospel of John (by W. Kelly)
  4. Synopsis of the Books of the Bible (by J. N. Darby)