God’s Purpose for Christ and the Church
Ephesians 1

Eternal ages shall declare
The riches of Thy grace,
To those who with Thy Son shall share
A son's eternal place

Ephesians 1. We get the three great points of the epistle in the first chapter: (1) as individuals we have the place of sons, vv.4-7; (2) God has revealed to us His over-arching purpose, to glorify His Son, vv.8-10; and (3) God has purposed that His Son should have a companion to share His inheritance with, vv.11-14. The details of that companion are developed in ch.2-3!

Individual → CollectiveThe truth in this chapter is developed beginning with the individual perspective down to the collective side. Paul first establishes the soul in our Christian blessings (vv.4-7), then he unfolds God's eternal purpose (vv.8-14). Why this order? God must first put us into a place where we have perfect peace before we can be in a state to learn the higher truths as to His purpose.


CHAPTER 1
Paul, apostle of Jesus Christ by God’s will, to the saints and faithful in Christ Jesus who are at Ephesus. v.1 In this epistle, Paul doesn’t include other brothers’ names in the greeting. Whenever Paul wrote to an assembly, he always associated one or two other brothers with him in writing (2 Cor. 1:1; Gal. 1:2; 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1). This is because "in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word shall be established" (Deut. 19:15; Matt. 18:16; 2 Cor. 13:1; 1 Tim. 5:19). Even today, when one assembly communicates with another assembly it ought to be signed by two or three. Here the epistle isn't addressed to an assembly, but more generally “to the saints which are at Ephesus”. It was a circular letter, to be passed from one house to another in the city of Ephesus. The recipients were both saints (sanctified ones) and faithful. The word "faithful" here refers to those who by grace faithfully maintained the faith they had received. The expression “in Christ Jesus” describes the saints’ position as in Christ’s place before God.

2 Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. v.2 If we are to profit from this epistle we will need “grace” or enabling power to understand and walk in Ephesian truth, and “peace” which refers to settled peace with God (Rom. 5:1) from God our Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ. Mercy is only added when an epistle is addressed to an individual, because the saints collectively are never looked at as an object of mercy, but of grace.


Our Spiritual Blessings in Heavenly Places in Christ (1:3-7)

Heavenly and Spiritual blessings. These blessings are distinct from Israel and the nations. The blessing of Israel and the nations is “from” the foundation of the world (Matt. 25:34), but the Church’s blessing is from “before” the foundation of the world. Also, Israel's blessings were material only, while ours are said to be "spiritual". The list of spiritual blessings in this chapter is not exhaustive but it includes seven of the highest ones:
  1. Sovereign Election (v.4)
  2. Predestination to Sonship (v.5)
  3. Acceptance into a Place of Favor (v.6)
  4. Redemption through His Blood (v.7a)
  5. Forgiveness of Sins (v.7b)
  6. Divine Intelligence of God’s Great Purpose (v.8)
  7. The Sealing of the Spirit (v.13)
These blessings make up our spiritual inheritance, which is different from our material inheritance (v.11).

¶ 3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenlies in Christ; v.3 This is a burst of praise for the Father. The word "blessed" is used twice here in different ways. The first is an expression of thanks, the second is a positive gift or endowment. An expression of thanks like v.3 will be our response when we realize that every blessing we have is in heavenly places in Christ. “The heavenlies” refer to the spiritual realm. Our blessings are spiritual neither natural nor material. As a result of being spiritual in character, these blessings are also eternal. We will never lose forgiveness of sins or acceptance before God. Israel's blessings could be forfeited through unbelief, but ours never can. However, our state of soul will impact how much we enjoy our blessings. All these blessings are ours “in Christ”, i.e. we have them because of the position we stand in before God. God has been so glorified with the work of Calvary that He has has gifted His Son with every honor that heaven has to bestow, just as all the blessings of Jacob came to rest on the head of Joseph (Gen. 49:26), and we are associated with Christ as in His place!

Blessing #1: Sovereign Election (v.4)

4 according as he has chosen us in him before the world’s foundation, that we should be holy and blameless before him in love; v.4 We were elected, or chosen, by God for blessing. Election is the choice of one out of many. Why did God choose me and not someone else? There was nothing good in me... the only reason is His sovereign grace. There is not a word here about man choosing God, but only God choosing man. The outcome of our election is that we will be before God perfectly suitable to His character: of light “holy and blameless”, and we will be there “in love”. Election is a truth that we do not proclaim with the Gospel. It is a family secret. We do not want to cast our pearls before swine. Rather we emphasize man’s responsibility and the sinner’s need. A sinner comes through a doorway into blessing; on one side it reads, “Whosoever will may come” and when he gets in, the other side reads, “chosen in Christ before the foundation of the world”. An expression that comes up over and over in these verses is "His will". Sovereign grace is the source of all our blessing. Election and predestination are not the same. Election (v.4) has to do with the person (e.g. choosing a rough diamond) and predestination (v.5) has to due with the final position (e.g. the final product in mind, after all the cutting and polishing has occurred).

Corporate Election. A clever denial of sovereign election has emerged and recently grown in popularity. The argument is intended to deny individual election by twisting the scriptures to support a different kind of election. Supporters of corporate election have found a convenient way to dispose of Eph. 1:4 and other verses that are crystal clear on the subject of election. They hold that God made the choice "in him" (that is, "in Christ"). In other words, they believe Christ is the principal elected one, and the Church is elect because it is in Christ and He is elect. They believe God has chosen a corporate body to be included "in Him". They deny the individuality of "us". However, this runs contrary to the plain use of the word "us" in the context of this chapter. For instance, if "us" is corporate only, then our standing in grace (v.6) is conditional also on our believing. Furthermore, it comes from failing to see that our standing "in Christ" is as individuals; the Church as a corporate body is never said to be "in Christ". See note on 1 Peter 5:13.

Blessing #2: Predestination to Sonship (v.5)

5 having marked us out beforehand for adoption through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, v.5 It was decided in a past eternity that we should be given the place and status of God's own Son!. The word “adoption” means 'son-place'. The adoption of sons is not what brings us into God’s family – that happened by new birth, which makes us children of God. Adoption brings us as children into an elevated position and relationship of intelligence (“sons”). It is the greatest blessing we have as believers… there is no higher place in heaven. We get a picture of adoption in Ephraim and Manasseh, the two sons of Joseph (Gen. 48:5). They were Jacob's grandsons, but Jacob elevated them to the status of his sons; "as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine". The expression the good pleasure of his willshows us that these blessings have satisfied the heart of God as well as our hearts. We are not immature children who differ not at all from a servant (Gal. 4:1-11), but we are full grown sons. What does the Father want to talk to His grown-up sons about? The merits of His only-begotten Son, His eternal purpose centered in the Son, how we've been brought into that purpose through His Son. These are the lofty themes that we can not enjoy in communion with the Father!

Blessing #3: Acceptance into a Place of Favor (v.6)

6 to the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he has taken us into favour in the Beloved: v.6 We have been brought into a place of favor with God. The Spirit changes from “in Christ” to “in the Beloved”, which speaks of the Father's delight in His Son. We are told that our standing is "in the Beloved" because God loves us as much as he loves His own Son (John 17:23)! The first part of the verse contains an expression connected primarily with v.5; "to the praise of the glory of his grace". Our being given the adoption of sons will redound to God getting more praise on account of His glory; praise from both men and angels. What glory is God displaying in bringing us into such blessing? The "glory of His grace" (see Exodus 33:18-23). The full glory of God could not be revealed in judgment only. It required the display of His goodness (or grace) to reflect the excellence of His character. Compare with the “riches of His grace” in v.7.

Blessing #4: Redemption through His Blood (v.7a)

7a in whom we have redemption through his blood, v.7a We have been purchased and set free from from all our enemies. Redemption has more to do with our condition than our standing. Redemption means to be “bought back and set free” from (1) sin, (2) the world, and (3) Satan for the purpose of doing the will of God in worship and in service. “Let My people go, that they may serve Me” (Ex. 8:1). There are four aspects of redemption given in scripture, all found in Ephesians:
  1. The redemption of our souls (Eph. 1:7)..................................... PAST
  2. The redemption of our time (Eph. 5:15-16).......................... PRESENT
  3. The redemption of our bodies (Eph. 4:30)............................. FUTURE
  4. The redemption of our inheritance (Eph. 1:14)..................... FUTURE

Blessing #5: The Forgiveness of Sins (v.7b)

7b the forgiveness of offences, according to the riches of his grace; v.7b God has lifted every charge of sin against us. There are many aspects of forgiveness, but this is eternal forgiveness. You never get the truth of justification mentioned in Ephesians, because we are seen “in Christ”. It is justification that puts us “in Christ”… it is a foregone conclusion in this epistle, and therefore never mentioned by name. However, forgiveness is mentioned in Ephesians. Forgiveness is the negative aspect of justification; it is non-imputation of sins. While the subject of being "declared righteous" is not addressed here, it is made clear that the forgiveness we have is on account of our standing "in Christ", in keeping with the “riches of His grace”. The two expressions, while very similar, have slightly different meanings. The “riches of His grace” is how far God has reached down to make us His own, and the “glory of his grace” is how far God has reached up to place us "in Christ" !


God’s Purpose to Glorify Christ in the Millennium (1:8-14)

Blessing #6: Divine Intelligence Concerning God’s Great Purpose (vv.8-13a)

8 which he has caused to abound towards us in all wisdom and intelligence, v.8 God has given us blessings that effect our hearts (vv.4-7) and now our minds (vv.8-14). “All wisdom and intelligence” have abounded toward us in the revelation of God's great purpose. That purpose, which follows in vv.9-10 is the key to all spiritual knowledge (see Col. 2:3). It has often been said, v.10 is a key to the whole bible.

9 having made known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in himself v.9 The mystery (or secret) of God’s will is a mystery because it was not previously revealed, and the world is ignorant of it. It has two parts:
  1. All things will be put under the headship of Christ in the millennium (v.10)
    • Things in heaven - not prophesied about
    • Thing on earth - prophesied about
  2. Believers will obtain an inheritance; a share in all that Christ possesses (vv.11-14)
    • Jewish believers will have a part in the inheritance (vv.11-12)
    • Gentile believers will have a part also (vv.13-14)
This mystery is "according to His good pleasure" because God has purposed all these things for His own satisfaction. Also, He purposed it "in Himself" because He alone will bring it to pass.

10 for the administration of the fulness of times; to head up all things in the Christ, the things in the heavens and the things upon the earth; in him, v.10 The great purpose of God. In the administration of the fullness of times (the Millennium) God will head up all things in Christ. What things? "All things". By comparing Colossians chapter 1, v.16 and v.20, we find that "by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him." And all those things being His by creatorial right, but having fallen into the hands of Satan through man's sin, Christ will restore them to God; "And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven." That is how Christ will inherit; not merely as the Son (heirship title), or as the Creator (creatorial title), but as the Restorer of all things (redemption title). J.N. Darby once said; "Were there, for example, a blade of grass that was not subjected to His power in blessing, Satan would have got an advantage over Christ, over His rights, and over His inheritance" [Geneva Lectures, 1840]. The glorification of His Son is God’s supreme purpose, and by association with Him, the Church is blessed (vv.11-14). This "heading up" of all things in Christ will be accomplished In two spheres:
  1. "In heaven" – The center of this sphere will be Christ and the Church, reigning together, the Church sharing in everything that Christ is and that Christ has, except His Deity... and even then, we are partakers of the divine nature (2 Pet. 1:4)Old Testament prophecies spoke of the Messiah's dominion over the earthly sphere (Hab. 2:14) but His dominion over the entire universe (heaven included) was unknown.
  2. "On earth" – The center of this sphere will be Christ with the purged and restored Nation of Israel, now a fruitful vineyard under the leadership of Messiah, taking their rightful places at the head of all other nations. It wouldn't be enough for Christ to have His rightful place in heaven only. No, God will see to it that Christ is glorified in the very earth where He is now rejected.
Not seeing these two distinct spheres is characteristic of Covenant Theology. Those who hold Covenant or Reform doctrine do not see the distinction between the heavenly and earthly peoples of God. They make the Church the spiritual continuator of Israel, and insist that the Church existed in the Old Testament. This does two things: (1) it denies the fulfillment of the literal promises made to Israel, and (2) it denies the heavenly calling and hopes of the Church. H.E. Hayhoe once said:

"I never met a believer who could get the Bible straight who didn't see that God has two purposes: to bless Israel and the nations on the earth, and to bless the Church in Glory."
- Harry E. Hayhoe

We might add, it is not that God has two purposes, but that His one purpose will be accomplished in two spheres. His point about getting the Bible straight is a good one. To miss this is a grave error.

The mystery of God’s will
  • Why has God chosen to do this? This great plan has originated from the very heart of God (v.9)
  • Whom does God's Purpose center around? Christ, the Man of God’s counsels (v.10)
  • What is God's Purpose? To glorify His Son! (v.10)
  • When will it be accomplished? In the Millennium, an administration of the fullness of times (v.10).
  • Where will it be accomplished? In two spheres: in heaven, and on earth (v.10).
  • How will it be accomplished? God will "gather together in one all things" under Christ's headship (v.10)
In Col. 2:2 this vast plan to glorify Christ is called “the Mystery of God” and we are told that it is the key to all wisdom and spiritual knowledge. It is elsewhere called “the purpose of the ages” (Eph. 3:11). See notes on “the mystery”.

11 in whom we [Jews] have also obtained an inheritance, being marked out beforehand according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the counsel of his own will, v.11 The inheritance spoken of here is the material universe; all that Christ possesses. This verse explains that Jewish believers in Christ were marked out in a past eternity to enjoy this inheritance! The inclusion of co-heirs with Christ is in keeping with God’s purpose, which we already learned is the glorification of Christ. God's purpose is the intention of His will, but His counsels are His wisdom to carry out His will in time. In other words, God's counsels will bring about His purpose at length.

Our Inheritance. In wilderness epistles, our inheritance is a present, spiritual inheritance (“over our heads”); composed of spiritual blessings in the heavenlies (See Col. 3:24, 1 Pet. 1:4, Phil. 3:12). In Ephesians we still have those blessings, not as as inheritance, but as "in Christ" (vv.3-7). Instead, our inheritance is a future, material inheritance, and is “under our feet”; composed of the material universe, every created thing. God has appointed Christ "heir of all things" (Heb. 1:2), and we are "heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ," (Rom. 8:17). We inherit, not by creatorial right or redemptive right, but by association with the Son of God.

12 that we [Jews] should be to the praise of his glory who have pre-trusted in the Christ: v.12 There will be a remnant of Israel that will trust the Lord and be brought into blessing in the Millennium, but the Jewish believers in the present time have “pre-trusted” ahead of the Nation. They have believed the gospel of the grace of God (not the kingdom gospel), and have received a greater blessing, and have been brought into “the Christ”! The Jewish remnant today with be part of the Church who will reflect the glory of Christ to the Millennial earth (Rev. 21:9 - 22:5). The sight of the glorified Church will produce praise from the nations (Rev. 21:24, Eph. 3:21), and in this way those who pre-trust during the present time will "be to the praise of his glory".

13a in whom *ye* [Gentiles] also have trusted, having heard the word of the truth, the glad tidings of your salvation; v.13a The Gentile believers at the present time have also pre-trusted before the day of glory. In the Millennium the gospel of the kingdom will go out to Gentiles as well as Jews, and myriads will be saved. This time of Gentile blessing is foretold in Old Testament prophecy; see Isa. 2:3Isa. 65:1, Zech. 2:11, Rom. 15:9-12, etc. But a special group from among the Gentiles have heard the Christian gospel, the "word of truth, the gospel of your salvation", and received it (Acts 28:28), getting saved before the great Millennial day!

Pre-trusting (vv.12-13a) by the use of the prefix “pre” you can see that the day of display is really what God has in view. At the present time He is gathering together a special company of co-heirs, but the day of glory is the destination toward which God is moving all things.

Blessing #7: The Sealing of the Spirit (vv.13b-14)

13b in whom also, having believed, ye [Gentiles] have been sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, v.13b This is the greatest of our spiritual blessings; a Divine Person dwelling within. It is by the Spirit that we enjoy our other blessings (e.g. we cry “abba, Father” by the Spirit, Gal. 4:6). Without this seventh blessing, we would never enjoy the other six! This verse clearly teaches how and when a person is sealed with the Spirit. Once a soul has believed the gospel of their salvation and is trusting in the Person of Christ, the Spirit of God comes and indwells that person’s body (1 Cor. 6:19). This indwelling Spirit is referred to in a number of different ways (all three found in 2 Cor. 1:21-22):
  • The Seal of the Spirit (2 Cor. 1:21; Eph. 1:13; 4:30). A seal is a mark. The mark serves two purposes; (1) it signifies a completed work in the soul, and (2) is identifies us as belonging to Christ.
  • The Earnest of the Spirit (2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14). An earnest is a down-payment; not the full and final deliverable, but the pledge and foretaste what it to come. The Earnest of the Spirit in the believer causes him to enjoy the inheritance (Millennial day) before it arrives.
  • The Anointing (unction) of the Spirit (2 Cor. 1:21; 1 John 2:20; 2:27). The anointing of the Spirit gives the soul the capacity to understand the things of God, and gives the soul power to carry our the desires of the new nature.
Quickening and Sealing. You may wonder when reading this verse, "What about the journey a person takes before they believe the gospel? If they didn't have the Spirit indwelling them, where did those desires and instincts come from? Certainly not from the flesh." This is a great question. The answer is that a person who has been awakened to feel their need of a Savior but has not yet believed the gospel is quickened, but not sealed. A person may be born again (of water and of the Spirit, John 3:5) and have new desires toward god (Rom. 7:22) but not be saved. Once a person believes the gospel, and rests on the finished work of Christ by faith, the Spirit of God indwells that person and seals them. At that time the soul is brought into the full Christian position (Rom. 8:10), and into the Church (1 Cor. 12:13). But there may be a space of time between quickening and sealing. The Spirit of God will not dwell in an unclean place… He will not take up residence until a person is trusting in the finished work of Christ.

14 who is the earnest of our [Jews + Gentiles] inheritance to the redemption of the acquired possession to the praise of his glory. v.14 Here the Seal of the Spirit is linked with the “Earnest of the Spirit”, the down payment of what is to come; i.e. the future possession of the inheritance. The purchase (or acquisition) of the inheritance was complete at the cross (Col. 1:20), but the redeeming or “setting free” will take place at the appearing. “to the praise of his glory” – the assurance of the redemption produces praise in our hearts, and the actual fact will produce praise from the entire creation (Rev. 5:13). “of his grace” is left off because it is the redemption of the creation by power that is in view, not the redeeming of men by grace.

Down-payment. Why give us the Holy Spirit as the down-payment? Usually, a down-payment is of the same currency as the full payment. The Holy Ghost is the subject of all of God's promises, as seen in the Old Testament prophecies (Gal. 3:14). The Spirit was promised to be poured out on “all flesh” in Joel 2:28. The “powers of the world to come" (referring to the Millennium) are connected with the Holy Spirit in Heb. 2:4-5, 6:4-5. That day hasn't arrived yet, but because Jesus has been glorified (John 7:39) and been exalted by the right hand of God (Acts 2:33), He has now received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, and has poured it out ahead of the Millennial day. We are getting a taste of the Millennium now in a spiritual way! We are enjoying our coming portion before we get there! A Christian is not occupied with saving the planet, reforming governments, etc. because he has a down-payment guarantee that the acquired possession will one day be redeemed.

Illustration of Seal and Earnest. A man buys some sheep and brings them to his farm. The first thing he does once the transaction is complete is put his mark on them by branding. That is like the Seal of the Spirit; it marks us out as belonging to God. He has a field of sweet clover that he plans to let them enjoy on the following day, but because it is evening time they wont be put out to pasture until the morning. But he has his farmhand gather several armfuls of the clover from the field and bring it into the barn for the sheep to enjoy. They do not have the field itself yet, but they are enjoying its sweetness ahead of time. That is like the Earnest of the Spirit, which gives us a foretaste and guarantee of the coming day of glory!


1st Prayer: That We would Know Our Portion and God’s Power (1:15-23)

Two Prayers. Paul records two beautiful prayers in this epistles; the first in ch.1, the second in ch.3. Each prayer has a different emphasis. The chart below compares them:


First Prayer
Ephesians 1:15-23
Second Prayer
Ephesians 3:14-21
Addressed to: To the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, because Christ is viewed as man in relation to God, glorified, all things under his feet. To the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, because He is viewed as Son in relationship to the Father, as the object of the Father’s love, which has brought about this blessing.
That we might know: That we might know the truth objectively, God’s power for us and for Christ.
That we might know the truth of the Mystery and the love of Christ subjectively, by a power (the Spirit) that works within us.
The prime mover: All has been accomplished by the power of God. All has been accomplished through the love of Christ.
Concerning our blessings: That we might know our blessings. That we might enjoy our blessings.

Introduction (vv.15-16)

¶ 15 Wherefore *I* also, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which is in you, and the love which ye have towards all the saints, v.15 Paul was imprisoned in Rome but had heard a good report of the Ephesians' faith and love. Love is the natural response of faith in the Lord Jesus. Christ is the object of our faith, and so those "in Christ" are the object of our love. Our love ought never be confined to any circle smaller than “all the saints”. We must always be on guard against sectarianism.

16 do not cease giving thanks for you, making mention of you at my prayers, v.16 Often we only pray for our brethren when they are going on poorly… but Satan makes special attacks on those who are going on well, in “faith” and “love”. Paul gives us a good example of bringing our brethren before God who are going on well; he gave thanks for them (v.16), and he prayed for continued spiritual growth (vv.17-23). Paul had visited Ephesus twice (Acts 18:19 & 19:1) and taught them much truth. But it is always important to follow up teaching with prayer.

That We would Know Our Portion: Blessings & Inheritance (vv.17-18)

17 that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, would give you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the full knowledge of him, v.17 As we already mentioned, this prayer is addressed to the "God of our Lord Jesus Christ" (not Father, see Eph. 3:14), because Christ is viewed in this prayer as man in relation to God, glorified, all things under his feet. God is identified as "the Father of glory" because the unfolding of His purpose will bring ultimate glory to Christ. Paul's first prayer request was that they would be given the spirit of wisdom and revelation”, which is a spiritual state where we can enter into the purpose and counsels of God. With this attitude we will be ready to learn about Christ, not in a narrow, unbalanced way, but “the full knowledge of him.”

18 being enlightened in the eyes of your heart, so that ye should know (1) what is the hope of his [God’s] calling, and (2) what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, v.18 Being put in the proper attitude for learning, Paul prays that we would in fact learn what our portion is. It isn’t enough to understand these things in our minds, we need to have the “eyes of our heart” enlightened. In this state we can learn three things (two in v.18, one in v.19):

  1. "the hope of, etc." – the eternal enjoyment of all our blessings (not the rapture) when we are in the glorified state (Rom. 5:2, 8:30). This is a summary of vv.3-7.
  2. "the riches of the glory of, etc." – the future enjoyment of the inheritance possessed with Christ reigning in the Millennium. This is a summary of vv.8-13.
"His inheritance" is the entire creation; see. v.10 for the expression "all things". He will take His inheritance "in the saints"; not that we are His inheritance, but that "in the saintsis the mode by which He possesses it (Dan. 7:22). A scriptural illustration is the conquest of Canaan. Jehovah Himself took the inheritance, but it was through Israel taking it. The bride is never looked at as the inheritance. Rather we are joint-heirs with Christ! A man should never speak of His wife was a possession.

That We would Know the Power of God on Our Behalf (vv.19-23)

vv.19-23 Paul's next prayer request is that we would know God's power. We need to understand that God has all power at His disposal to bring to pass His eternal purpose. We might look at the state of the world today and wonder, "The picture painted for us in Eph. 1:10 is beautiful, but how in the world is it going to be accomplished?" The answer? God has the power to do it, and He has proven it by raising Christ from the dead. 

19 and (3) what the surpassing greatness of his power towards us who believe, according to the working of the might of his strength,
  1.  "the surpassing greatness of, etc." – That we would know God’s power; exceeding great & measured only in Christ's resurrection. This is a summary of summary of v.14.
That same power that raised up Christ from the dead is "towards us who believe". It is employed on our behalf! Not only available to quicken us when we were dead in sins and offenses (ch.2) but to strengthen us for the daily fight of faith (ch.6)!

20 in which he wrought in the Christ in raising him from among the dead, and he set him down at his right hand in the heavenlies, v.20 The very same power demonstrated in the resurrection & ascension of Christ will be employed in a future day to fulfill his purpose. The greatest demonstration of Divine love was Christ's atoning work, the greatest demonstration of Divine power was His glorious resurrection and ascension to God’s right hand! (c.p. Rom. 9:22). God gives us the plan in vv.8-14, and now He gives us the proof. Very often politicians make promises without demonstrating the needed power to follow through. Not so with God and the Man of His counsels. God raised Him from the among the dead (the lowest possible place) and raised Him higher and higher, and did not stop raising Christ until He was seated "at his own right hand". Note: saints are seated with Christ, but never said to be at the right hand of God. That place is reserved for Christ alone.

21 above every principality, and authority, and power, and dominion, and every name named, not only in this age, but also in that to come; v.21 The greatest display of the world & Satan's power put the Lord Jesus on the cross. The man of God’s counsels lying dead in a tomb appeared to be ultimate defeat. Christ's resurrection and exaltation has revealed God’s power, that it is 'above' [G5231, 'greatly higher than'] every other power. The armies of men (Rev. 19) and the hosts of hell cannot stand against nor stop the progress of God’s plan. Christ always was above all these things listed in v.21… but now He is there as a man! What power!

22 and has put all things under his feet, a|b and gave him to be head over all things to the assembly, v.22 Here we find the twofold place into which Christ has come as a glorified Man. This verse gives us what Christ is to the church (c.p. v.23):
  1. Lordship (authority). As a glorified man, God has subjected all things under His feet (same fact given in Heb. 2:8, except here it is looked at as already done). Note: it doesn't say that Christ is Lord to the Church. He is Lord to individuals, but to the Church He is Head!
  2. Headship (leadership). Christ is not only head of the Church (see Col. 1:18) but here He is head to the Church. It gives the thought that all He is and all He has is for His bride. He nourishes and cherishes His Assembly as the Head (Eph. 5:29).

23 which is his body, a|b the fulness of him [Christ] who fills all in all: v.23 This verse gives us what the Church is to Christ (c.p. v.22):

  1. His body (expression). The body is an aspect of the Church where we give expression to the mind of Christ. This is the eternal aspect of the body, and it is the only place where the eternal aspect of the body is used, including all members, from Pentecost to the rapture. We are the Eve of the Last Adam! It shows that even in eternity, we the Church will never cease to be the perfect display of Christ.
  2. Complement of Christ (fulfillment). Just as a natural body completes the head, so the Church is the complement of Christ. Note: as God, He was complete; but as a man He was incomplete. We are the fullness of him”! In Colossians we are incomplete without Him (Col. 2:10), but in Ephesians He is incomplete without us (Eph. 1:23)! But Christ is the One “that filleth all in all”. The very one who will fill the universe with His glory has chosen to be incomplete without us! There are glories of Christ that could not be displayed without the Church! This is holy ground.
Death cannot keep its Prey, Jesus my Savior;
He tore the bars away, Jesus my Lord!

Up from the grave He arose,
With a mighty triumph o’er His foes,
He arose a Victor from the dark domain,
And He lives forever, with His saints to reign.
He arose! He arose!
Hallelujah! Christ arose!
                                                                            - Robert Lowry, 1874