Azariah, Zecharaiah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah & Jotham
2 Kings 15
 
 

Azariah (Uzziah): King of Judah (Good – 52 Years) (15:1-7)

CHAPTER 15
1 In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Azariah son of Amaziah, king of Judah, began to reign. v.1 see note on II Kings 14:21. This verse speaks of the time he took full control…. the year his father was captured.
 
2 He was sixteen years old when he began to reign; and he reigned fifty-two years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Jecholiah of Jerusalem. v.2 his 52-year reign began in 791 b.c.
 
3 And he did what was right in the sight of Jehovah, according to all that his father Amaziah had done. v.3 he also had the same issues that his father had: pride and despising the Lord’s correction. Prov. 6:23. during this time (circa 760 B.C.) the great earthquake occurred, see zech. 14:5.

4 Only, the high places were not removed: the people still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places. v.4 for details between vv.4+5 see II Chron. 26:1-20
 
5 And Jehovah smote the king, so that he was a leper to the day of his death, and dwelt in a separate house. And Jotham the king’s son was over the house, judging the people of the land. 6 And the rest of the acts of Azariah, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? 7 And Azariah slept with his fathers, and they buried him with his fathers in the city of David; and Jotham his son reigned in his stead. 

This is the end of jehu’s dynasty. see Hosea 1:4.
 

Zechariah: King of Israel (Evil – 6 Months) (15:8-12)

8 In the thirty-eighth year of Azariah king of Judah, Zechariah the son of Jeroboam reigned over Israel in Samaria, six months. v.8 The “thirty and eighth year” is measured from the date when he became co-regent.
 
9 And he did evil in the sight of Jehovah, according as his fathers had done: he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. vv.9-10 Ultimately the sins of jeroboam came about and were repeated by the kings of israel to consolidate power for themselves. Ironically, it is the very same lust for power that brought shallum to murder Zecharaiah and usurp the Kingdom.

10 And Shallum the son of Jabesh conspired against him, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead. v.10 “Before the people” – apparently he was not very popular with the people. Also, remember all jehu’s public executions.

11 And the rest of the acts of Zechariah, behold, they are written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel. 12 This was the word of Jehovah which he spoke to Jehu saying, Thy sons shall sit upon the throne of Israel unto the fourth generation. And so it came to pass. 
 

Shallum: King of Israel (Evil – 1 Months) (15:13-15)

13 Shallum the son of Jabesh began to reign in the thirty-ninth year of Uzziah king of Judah; and he reigned a full month in Samaria. vv.13-15 This is the beginning of the end. From here on there is one assassination after another ending with hoshea (v.30) before the assyrian captivity (ch. 17). Romans 1:28 gives us the principles for how god often chooses to judge those who ignore the voice of conscience… they destroy themselves through their own lusts.
 
14 And Menahem the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah, and came to Samaria, and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria, and slew him, and reigned in his stead. 15 And the rest of the acts of Shallum, and his conspiracy which he made, behold, they are written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel. 
 

Menahem: King of Israel (Evil – 11 Years) (15:16-22)

16 Then Menahem smote Tiphsah, and all that were therein, and its territory from Tirzah, because they did not open to him; and he smote it: all the women in it that were with child he ripped up. v.16 Tiphsah was a city on the euphrates that had been under solomon’s control, then under the control of Jeroboam I, but had since rebelled. “they opened not to him” – this shows that the man was fueled by pride… therefore his angry reaction. contrast the lord’s reaction when the samaritans would not receive him… Luke 9:51-56. “women that were with child he ripped up” – not only was he proud, but he was cruel. Contrast with the Lord… Luke 18:16.
 
17 In the thirty-ninth year of Azariah king of Judah, Menahem the son of Gadi began to reign over Israel, for ten years, in Samaria. 18 And he did evil in the sight of Jehovah: he departed not, all his days, from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. 

19 Pul the king of Assyria came against the land; and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver, that his hand might be with him to establish the kingdom in his hand. vv.19-20 Pul was willing to take this massive payoff which was between $6M and $200M depending on the economy at that time. notice his motive… it was a selfish one. He did not truly care for the people.
 
20 And Menahem exacted the money of Israel, of all those who were wealthy, of each man fifty shekels of silver, to give to the king of Assyria. And the king of Assyria turned back, and stayed not there in the land. v.20 it wasn’t nice that menahem exacted this money from others… but how did they get wealthy? see Amos 4:1, 5:11-12, 8:4-6, Micah 2:2, 6:10-12. Contrast with Boaz, a type of Christ – Ruth 2:1.

21 And the rest of the acts of Menahem, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel? v.21 Menahem does not die a violent death. this is illustrative of the FACT THAT god’s earthly government is not the measurment of his righteousness nor of his judgment against sin (but the cross is). This was the error of Job’s three friends.
 
22 And Menahem slept with his fathers; and Pekahiah his son reigned in his stead. 
 

Pekahiah: King of Israel (Evil – 2 Years) (15:23-26)

23 In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah, Pekahiah the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, for two years. 24 And he did evil in the sight of Jehovah: he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. 25 And Pekah the son of Remaliah, his captain, conspired against him, and smote him in Samaria, in the fortress of the king’s house, with Argob and Arieh, and with him fifty men of the Gileadites; and he slew him, and reigned in his stead. v.25 “in samaria” – pekah kills pekahiah in the same place Menahem had killed shallum.

26 And the rest of the acts of Pekahiah, and all that he did, behold, they are written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel.
 

Pekah: King of Israel (Evil – 20 Years) (15:27-31)

27 In the fifty-second year of Azariah king of Judah, Pekah the son of Remaliah began to reign over Israel in Samaria, for twenty years. v.27 This date (works out to 740 b.c.) refers to the time when he gained control over the whole land. Previously (752 b.c.) pekah had set up a house in gilead (east of jordan, v.25) in rivalry with with menahem’s (west of jordan). The 20-year reign is measured from 732 b.c. but pekah didn’t gain full control until he murdered pekahiah. This period of confusion with two kings is possibly referred to in Hosea 13:10 “where is thy king?” and in hosea 5:5 where “ephraim” and “israel” are distinct entities.

28 And he did evil in the sight of Jehovah: he departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin. v.28 this is the last time this expression occurs. probably because the calves were taken away for a present to the king of assyria… see hosea 10:5-8.

29 In the days of Pekah king of Israel, Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria came and took Ijon, and Abel-Beth-Maachah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria. v.29 these would be the lands east of jordan and to the far north… the first ones top be taken captive. They were the farthest from where the Lord was.
  1. East – those who don’t see their death and resurrection with Christ… want to settle down here.
  2. North – those who “stay away” from the Lord for too long.

The first assyrian captivity occurred after Pekah’s unprovoked attack on jerusalem in concert with rezin king of damascus (II Kings 16:5). He slew in his fierce anger 120,000 jews in one day (II Chron. 28:6) but ahaz made an alliance with Assyria (II kings 16:7). Tiglath-pileser’s invasion and devastation was Pekah’s reward for his evil counsel against the house of David (Isa. 7:4-6).


30 And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him and slew him; and he reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah. v.30 Quid pro quo. Genesis 9:6.

31 And the rest of the acts of Pekah, and all that he did, behold, they are written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Israel.
 

Jotham: King of Judah (Good – 16 Years) (15:32-38)

32 In the second year of Pekah the son of Remaliah, king of Israel, Jotham the son of Uzziah, king of Judah, began to reign. 33 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign; and he reigned sixteen years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Jerusha, the daughter of Zadok. 34 And he did what was right in the sight of Jehovah: he did according to all that his father Uzziah had done. 35a Only, the high places were not removed: the people still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places. v.35A He lacked the energy to go after the idolatry.
 
35b It was he who built the upper gate of the house of Jehovah. v.35 He seemed to have a care for the testimony, yet in 2 Chron. 27:2 we find he did not ever go in – even for prayer… and the people did yet corruptly. He was very careful not to make the same mistake his father made – but perhaps his lack of personal communion had an ill-effect on the kingdom. However, the expositors all disagree with this point.

36 And the rest of the acts of Jotham, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? v.36 Ahaz took over a co-regent in 735 b.c. when his father Jotham was deposed by the pro-Assyrian faction… hence 16 years

37 In those days Jehovah began to send against Judah Rezin the king of Syria, and Pekah the son of Remaliah. 38 And Jotham slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father; and Ahaz his son reigned in his stead. 
 

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